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V20W产品简介:

ICGOO电子元器件商城为您提供V20W由Mide Technology Corporation设计生产,在icgoo商城现货销售,并且可以通过原厂、代理商等渠道进行代购。 提供V20W价格参考以及Mide Technology CorporationV20W封装/规格参数等产品信息。 你可以下载V20W参考资料、Datasheet数据手册功能说明书, 资料中有V20W详细功能的应用电路图电压和使用方法及教程。

产品参数 图文手册 常见问题
参数 数值
产品目录

传感器,变送器

描述

PIEZOELECTRIC ENERGY HARVESTER

产品分类

震动传感器

品牌

Mide Technology Corporation

数据手册

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产品图片

产品型号

V20W

rohs

含铅 / 不符合限制有害物质指令(RoHS)规范要求

产品系列

Volture™

产品培训模块

http://www.digikey.cn/PTM/IndividualPTM.page?site=cn&lang=zhs&ptm=25328http://www.digikey.cn/PTM/IndividualPTM.page?site=cn&lang=zhs&ptm=25691

传感器类型

加速

功率-额定值

-

安装类型

通孔

封装/外壳

悬臂压电薄膜(晶片)

工作温度

-40°C ~ 90°C

感应范围

75Hz ~ 175Hz

标准包装

1

灵敏度

-

特性

压电式振动能量收集,全密闭式密封

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PC 引脚

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模拟

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PDF Datasheet 数据手册内容提取

Table of Contents General Information ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������3 Overview �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������5 Product Summary ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������5 Volume Pricing������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������6 Performance Summary ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������7 Product: PPA-1001 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������10 Product: PPA-1011 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������14 Product: PPA-1012 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������18 Product: PPA-1013 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������22 Product: PPA-1014 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������23 Product: PPA-1021 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������27 Product: PPA-1022 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������31 Product: PPA-2011 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������35 Product: PPA-2014 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������39 Product: PPA-4011 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������43 Piezo Polarity & Connecting Multiple Piezos ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������47 Solder ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������47 Electrical Connection ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������47 PPA-7001 Ring Terminal Cable ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������48 Conductive Hardware Directly to PCB ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������48 Spring Loaded Contacts (Pogo Pins) ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������48 IC Hook and Alligator Clips ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������49 Connectors ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������49 PPA-9001 Clamp Kit �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������50 List of Contents ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������50 Clamping/Mounting ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������50 Clamp Location �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������51 Clamping Instructions ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������52 Example Configurations ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������52 PPA-5003 Tip Mass Accessory �����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������53 PPA-5004 Clamp ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������54 Tuning �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������54 Calculating the Required Tip Mass �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������54 Adding Tip Mass ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������55 Determining the Characteristics of the Vibration Source ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������55 Determining Resonance of the Piezo Beam �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������55 Bonding ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������56 Piezoelectric Properties ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������57 1 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

Material Properties ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������57 Packaging Materials ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������58 Static Defection/Block Force�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������59 Testing Methods ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������59 Frequency Sweep ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������60 Sensitivity/Power Bandwidth ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������60 Custom Solutions ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������61 Troubleshooting ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������62 Frequently Asked Questions ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������62 Product Support ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������64 2 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

GENERAL INFORMATION COPYRIGHT CAUTION: This represents an operating procedure, practice This datasheet and the design data which it describes are copyright condition, statement, etc., which if not strictly with all rights reserved. None of the data may be copied without observed, could result in damage to, or destruction of, the express written consent of Midé Technology Corporation. equipment or a reduction in performance. Refer to Midé Technology Corporation’s full Copyright Policy at http://www.mide.com/legal/legal_copyright.php for the full legal terms in regard to this copyright. In addition to the specific warnings and cautions included in this manual, Midé recommends that all customers install, operate, and maintain the products in accordance with general safety guidelines WARRANTY included in standards published by OSHA. Midé Technology Corporation warrants that the PPA standard products will be free from defects in workmanship and materials INTRODUCTION in normal use and operation within 3 months from date of shipment. This warranty only applies when the products are Midé’s piezo standard products utilize its Piezo Protection installed, maintained, and repaired in accordance with all of the Advantage (PPA) to protect the piezo ceramic wafers. Midé’s directions, instructions, diagrams, safety warnings, cautions, packaging also enables cost effective system integration with and other notices set forth in this document, and if not damaged mounting features and electrical connection incorporated into the by persons, actions, or inactions unrelated to Midé. In the event piezoelectric package. Midé has been manufacturing packaged of any such defect of which Midé is informed in writing within piezos with its patented process for over 15 years; it typically such 3 month period, Midé’s sole responsibility is, at Midé’s produces between 25,000 and 50,000 units annually. In addition option, to provide a replacement at no cost to the Buyer upon to the manufacturing experience Midé has gained over the years, the return of the defective product. Requests for compliance it has engineered many custom electromechanical solutions that with this express, limited warranty shall be honored only when integrate its packaged piezos to solve a wide range of engineering made by the Buyer. Refer to the Terms and Conditions at http:// problems. www.mide.com/legal/legal_terms.php#4 for the full legal terms The PPA standard product line are a range of rectangular in regard to this warranty. piezoelectric packages designed for cantilever, bonded, or fixed beam configurations. Applications for these products include SAFETY PRECAUTIONS vibration energy harvesting, vibration dampening, precise actuation (especially useful for haptic and valve applications), vibration & strain sensing, as well as many others. Although this product line A number of warnings and cautions appear in the text of this focuses on rectangular piezos, Midé can design and manufacture technical manual. They are intended to safeguard personnel and a wide range of shapes and sizes. Please refer to Section 7 if a equipment from potential hazards or damage during equipment custom design is required. installation, operation, and maintenance. These warnings and cautions will be presented in the following manner. This datasheet provides comprehensive data for all products. Section 1 provides performance summary information for the main WARNING: This represents an operating procedure, practice applications of these products and also higher volume pricing for condition, statement, etc., which if not strictly observed, could comparison. Section 2 provides more in depth information by result in injury to personnel or long term health hazards. product. Section 3 details how electrical connection to the piezos can be achieved. Section 4 explains how these products should be mounted when in the cantilever position and includes detailed information on the PPA-9001 clamp kit. This kit is recommended for all products when they are being evaluated in the cantilever configuration. This kit includes all the necessary hardware to mount and clamp the products, tip masses to tune the beams to 3 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

GENERAL INFORMATION resonance, necessary tools for the hardware and electrical tape for insulation. Also included in this section is the recommended epoxy for direct bonding applications. Section 5 provides the material properties for modeling and simulation. Section 6 details the test procedures used to gather all data presented in this datasheet. 4 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT SUMMARY OVERVIEW Figure 1: Provides an overview of these products as well as to scale drawing for size comparison. Products PPA-1001 PPA-1011 PPA-1012 PPA-1013 PPA-1014 PPA-1021 PPA-1022 PPA-2011 PPA-2014 PPA-4011 Length (mm) [in] (54.4) [2.14] (71.0) [2.80] (71.0) [2.80] (71.0) [2.80] (53.0) [2.09] (71.0) [2.80] (53.0) [2.09] Width (mm) [in] (22.4) [0.88] (25.4) [1.00] (41.5) [1.63] (41.5) [1.63] (20.8) [0.82] (10.3) [0.41] (10.3) [0.41] Thickness (mm) [in] (0.46) [18.0] (0.71) [28.0] (0.75) [29.5] (1.94) [76.5] (0.74) [29.0] (0.74) [29.0] (0.70) [27.4] (0.76) [30.0] (0.80) [31.5] (0.83) [32.5] (0.86) [34.0] (0.70) [27.4] (1.32) [52.0] Piezo Length (mm) [in] (46.0) [1.81] (46.0) [1.81] (46.0) [1.81] (46.0) [1.81] (27.8) [1.09] (46.0) [1.81] (21.6) [0.85] Piezo Width (mm) [in] (20.8) [0.82] (20.8) [0.82] (38.4) [1.51] (33.4) [1.31] (18.0) [0.71] (06.4) [0.25] (03.7) [0.15] Piezo Thickness (mm) [in] (0.18) [06.0] (0.18) [06.0] (0.25) [10.0] (1.47) [58.0] (0.19) [07.5] (0.25) [10.0] (0.18) [07.0] Number of Piezo Layers 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 Piezo Materials PZT-5H PZT-5H PZT-5H PZT-5H PZT-5H PZT-5H PZT-5H Capacitance (nF) 100 97 120 24 41 22 7 190 94 415 Mass (grams) 2.8 3.0 6.0 21.5 2.0 1.4 0.8 4.0 2.9 7.6 Figure 1: The PPA standard product range is shown to scale, with a United States quarter included as a reference scale. 5 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT SUMMARY These products come in 8 product sets, grouped by form factor. Within each set, the first numerical digit in the product part number designates the number of piezo layers. These PPA products come as unimorph (single layer), bimorph (two active piezo layers) and quad-morphs (four active layers). One product set, PPA-103X, is differentiated by piezoelectric material. PMN-PT, PZT-5H, and PZT-5A material choices are available. See Section 5.1 for more information on piezoelectric material properties. VOLUME PRICING Midé’s PPA product line offers cost effective piezoelectric packages to customers, these costs and sale prices drop dramatically with increased volumes as shown in Table 1. These prices are subject to change at any time and are only available when buying directly through Midé. Distributors offer these products at low quantities; Midé only sells quantities of 10 or more piezos directly through its website. Midé typically keeps about 100 units of each product in stock at all times. Orders of over 100 units will have a lead time of 4 to 6 weeks. If an order of 1,000 or more units is desired, please contact Midé for a more accurate lead time estimation. Table 1: Volume Pricing of PPA Standard Product Line Quanity PPA-1001 PPA-1011 PPA-2011 PPA-4011 PPA-1012 PPA-1013 PPA-1014 PPA-2014 PPA-1021 PPA-1022 10 $19.00 $69.00 $109.00 $189.00 $69.00 $149.00 $69.00 $99.00 $49.00 $44.00 100 $13.00 $46.00 $70.00 $108.00 $48.00 $105.00 $44.00 $68.00 $32.00 $29.00 1,000 $8.15 $21.16 $31.93 $51.27 $27.28 $55.86 $18.30 $27.31 $18.15 $16.85 10,000 $5.85 $13.83 $20.56 $31.19 $18.25 $34.18 $12.25 $18.27 $10.86 $10.16 6 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PERFORMANCE SUMMARY VIBRATION ENERGY HARVESTING Power Output Comparison @ 0.5g | No Tip Mass 0.5 Midé’s PPA standard products utilize the piezoelectric effect to 0.45 PPA-4011 convert mechanical energy in the form of vibration or shock into 0.4 PPA-2011 electrical energy. These provide optimal power output when they 0.35 are properly clamped per the instructions in Section 4 and have a W)0.3 rseyssotenman itt firse hqaurevnecsyt inthga et nmeargtcyh ferosm th.e Adlol omf itnhaet eP fPrAeq pureondcuyc tosf ctahne Power Output (m00.2.25 P PPPA A -P1-1P00A01-112011 be tuned to a wide range of frequencies. Adding tip mass greatly PPA-2014 reduces the resonant frequency and further adjustment can be 0.15 PPA-1014 made by changing the clamp location. To increase the resonant 0.1 PPA-1021 frequency the piezo beams can be clamped on both ends and/or 0.05 PPA-1022 bonded to a stiffer beam. 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 Frequency (Hz) The power output of all of the recommended energy harvesting Figure 3: The power output at each product’s resonant frequency is products are compared when tuned to a 60 Hz resonance. Figure compared. These were excited with a 0.5g amplitude sinewave at 2 shows the comparison between these products for four different the respective resonant frequency. No tip mass was added, these acceleration amplitudes: 0.25g, 0.50g, 1.0g, and 2.0g. Figure frequencies represent the upper end of each products frequency 3 compares the power output for each product when there is no range without adjusting the clamp configuration. tip mass added; this represents the upper limit of the products frequency range if the clamping configuration is not changed. Power Output Comparison @ 0.5g | Full Tip Mass Figure 4 compares the power output for each product when there 12 PPA-2011 is the maximum tip mass added; this represents the lower limit of the products frequency range if the clamping configuration is 10 not changed. These tests were all with beams clamped in the middle clamp location. 8 W) 100Power Output Comparison at 60 Hz Power Output (m 6 PPA-1011 PPA-1014 PPPPAA--24001141 0.25g PPA-1001 01..5000gg 4 2.00g PPA-1021 2 PPA-1012 PPA-1022 10 W) m Power Output ( Fig0u20re 4: T2h5e pow3e0r outp3u5t atF reequae4nc0cyh (H zp)rod45uct’s re50sonant55 freque6n0cy 1 is compared when the maximum recommended tip mass is added. These were excited with a 0.5g amplitude sinewave at the respective resonant frequency. These frequencies represent the lower end of each products frequency range without adjusting 0.1 PPA-1001 PPA-1011 PPA-1012 PPA-1014 PPA-1021 PPA-1022 PPA-2011 PPA-2014 PPA-4011 Part Number the clamp configuration. Please refer to the product’s specific section for the tip mass used. Figure 2: The power output of each product when tuned to 60 Hz is shown for four different acceleration amplitudes: 0.25g, Please refer to Section 2 for product specific information at a 0.50g, 1.0g, and 2.0g. Please refer to the product’s specific range of frequencies, and acceleration amplitudes. section to determine how much tip mass was added to achieve a 60 Hz resonance. 7 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PERFORMANCE SUMMARY VIBRATION ENERGY HARVESTING Figure 6: The peak to peak displacement when driven at resonance is shown for all products. They were driven with a The PPA products can also be driven as an actuator by applying 100 volt amplitude sine wave for each product except the PPA- an electric voltage to them. These are often used in valves where 4011 which was only driven with 50 volts. fast and controlled actuation is needed. To compare the relative Resonant Frequency vs Tip Displacement | Middle Clamp Location | Added Tip Mass performance of these range of products a plot of block force 25 0.98 PPA-1001 and maximum tip displacement is provided Figure 5. Adjusting PPA-1011 the clamp location changes this displacement/force relationship; 20 0.79 this data is listed for each product in Section 2. 11..240.F0ree Dis0p.0l0a4cemen0t.0 v08s Block0. 0F1o2rce CDoi0s.mp01la6pcaemrisenot n0A. m0|2p 0Mlituidded (lien0 c.0Ch2el4as)mp L0o.0c2a8tion 0.031 0.035 0.03459..30 Peak to Peak Deflection (mm)1105 PPA-1P0P1A2-2011 PPA-1021 00..3599Peak to Peak Displacement (inches) PPA-4011 PPA-1022 PPA-4011 1 3.6 5 PPA-1014 0.20 PPA-2014 Force Amplitude (Newtons)00..68 PPA-2014 22..29Force Amplitude (ounces) 020 30 40 50 Freque6n0cy (Hz) 70 80 90 1000.00 Figure 7: Adding tip mass reduces the resonant frequency and 0.4 1.4 can also increase tip displacement. The PPA-1021 and PPA-1022 PPA-1001 0.2 PPA-1022 PPA-1014PPA-1021PPA-101P1PA-1012 PPA-2011 0.7 had a 3.1 gram tip mass; the rest, excluding PPA-1012 which had a 15.5 gram tip mass, had tip masses of 9.3 grams. 0 0.0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 Displacement Amplitude (mm) Strain actuation test data is coming soon. Please Contact Us Figure 5: The block force is plotted compared to the maximum, to be placed on a mailing list to receive notification when this unloaded tip displacement for static, or near static, actuation. information is available. When driven at resonance the peak displacement will be much greater than when driven at static or quasi static speeds. Figure SENSING 6 provides a comparison between these products when driven at resonance and a 100 volt amplitude sine wave. The PPA-4011 was only driven with a 50 volt amplitude to prevent damaging the Piezos provide an electrical output when strained and therefore product. Figure 7 provides this frequency and tip displacement they are often used as sensors. What’s unique about Midé’s comparison when tip mases were added. These tests were all PPA products is that their size results in a very large output for a with the products clamped at the middle clamp location. given mechanical input. This results in the ability to use piezos as unpowered sensors. This is very useful for applications that Resonant Frequency vs Tip Displacement | Middle Clamp Location | No Tip Mass require a very long lifetime and/or where batteries may not be an 25 0.98 option. Figure 8 provides a plot comparing the sensitivity of each product to the upper limit of the usable frequency range. This 20 PPA-1001 0.79 frequency range is defined as when the deviation is within ± 3 dB Peak to Peak Deflection (mm)1105 PPA-1P0P1A1-20P1P1A-1021 00..3599Peak to Peak Displacement (inches) oiw-bt6 efwe mctrhiaelmelu a wss lcseeitlo nahit sm g twihrtpieeiv lall i ottprylceyi.e ad Arztueoidodc dneuci ncltwahgemo e tthu ippbeled a mdbnn a’daitnnsw b dstiewdh w etvihdi el mtlra hiynni do dcudfr s tetlhehea efescu seslla eeitmnnhn ssetphoi tsilirsove. inTctaysahp itebptiiosveliencict .yata e tTubisohsutnseet it is not clamped on the piezo. Clamping at the +6mm location 5 PPA-1012 PPA-1022 0.2 will increase the bandwidth but decrease the sensitivity; this may PPA-4011 PPA-2014 PPA-1014 be useful for some applications. 0 0.0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 Frequency (Hz) 8 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PERFORMANCE SUMMARY Sensitivity vs Upper Frequency Limit Comparison 180 PPA-2011 160 PPA-1001 PPA-1021 140 mV/g)120 Sensitivity (100 PPPPAA--11001112 PPA-2014 80 PPA-1022 PPA-4011 60 PPA-1014 40 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Upper Frequency Limit (Hz) Figure 8: The sensitivity of each product is plotted against the upper limit of the usable frequency range. This frequency range is defined as when the deviation is within ± 3 dB of the sensitivity. Strain sensing test data is coming soon. Please Contact Us to be placed on a mailing list to receive notification when this information is available. VIBRATION DAMPENING Midé’s vibration energy harvesters convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. Because of this piezoelectric effect, Midé’s piezo products are taking mechanical energy out of the system and providing electrical power to a sensing system. Thus Midé’s energy harvesters can not only harvest otherwise unused energy, it can also prolong the life of the mechanical system the energy is harvested from by dampening vibrations. If vibration dampening is all that is desired from the piezo, a shunt circuit can be utilized to dissipate the harvested mechanical energy into heat and/ or a magnetic field. Thus, through the use of the piezoelectric, the mechanical energy in the system is passively dampened. Vibration dampening test data is coming soon. Please Contact Us to be placed on a mailing list to receive notification when this information is available. 9 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-1001 PPA-1001: OVERVIEW DESCRIPTION The PPA-1001 is a single layer product recommended for Performance data for the PPA-1001 is summarized in the energy harvesting and sensing applications. It also exhibits good following tables and plots. Refer to Section 6 for information performance as a resonant actuator. It is not recommended for on how this data was gathered. Please note that this data is applications requiring high force output. This product does not to be used only as reference and that there is some variability have mounting and alignment holes like the other products; but from unit to unit. Temperature, clamp conditions, drive quality, it is the most cost effective option Midé has. all can contribute to additional variability. All test data was gathered at room temperature and with the PPA-9001 clamp kit hardware. SPECIFICATIONS DIMENSIONS Overview Capacitance (nF) 100 55.3 PZT 46.0 Mass (g) 2.8 Full Scale Voltage Range (V) ±120 8.4 Layer Material¹ Thickness (mils) Thickness (mm) PZT 23.3 Polyester 2.0 0.05 20.8 Copper 1.4 0.03 8.4 PZT 5H 6.0 0.15 SPotalyinimlesidse Steel 304 61..00 00..1053 14.5 10.0 Clamp 0 Clamp 6.0 39.0 40.8 Total 18.0 0.46 Figure 9: The overall dimensions (mm) for the PPA-1001 are 1Information on material properties is provided in Section 5. shown. The total thickness is 0.46 mm (18 mils). ²The layer thicknesses do not perfectly add up to the actual thickness of the product due to the epoxy layers. These epoxy layers can be ignored for finite element analysis however. Stiffness Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Effective Stiffness N/A 452.15 275.52 (N/m) Effective Mass (g) N/A 0.918 0.714 Max Peak to Peak Deflection (mm) N/A 24.0 20.0 See Section 4.3 for more information on how to use this data to tune your piezo. 10 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-1001 SPECIFICATIONS Energy Harvesting Data for Middle Clamp Location Acceleration Frequency Tip Mass RMS Power RMS Voltage RMS Current Resistance RMS Open Peak to Peak Peak to Peak Amplitude (g) (Hz) (gram) (mW) (V) (mA) (kΩ) Circuit Displacement Displacement (mm) (in) 0.25 132.0 0.0 0.1 1.1 0.1 17.9 2.1 1.1 0.04 0.50 131.0 0.0 0.2 1.9 0.1 18.3 3.6 1.4 0.05 1.00 131.0 0.0 0.7 3.4 0.2 15.7 6.0 1.6 0.06 2.00 129.0 0.0 2.2 5.4 0.4 13.0 9.9 2.2 0.09 0.25 60.0 1.9 0.1 2.9 0.0 61.0 3.8 1.2 0.05 0.50 60.0 1.8 0.5 3.3 0.2 20.8 6.7 2.1 0.08 1.00 60.0 1.7 1.8 7.1 0.3 28.6 12.2 3.9 0.15 0.25 22.0 22.8 1.4 9.0 0.1 60.4 16.4 5.2 0.21 0.50 22.0 22.8 4.4 17.3 0.3 67.6 26.6 9.3 0.37 Block Force and Static Displacement, 100 volt signal Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Block Force Amplitude (N) N/A 0.20 0.23 Displacement Amplitude (mm) N/A 0.80 0.74 Dynamic displacement, no added tip mass, +/- 100 volt signal Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Resonant Frequency (Hz) N/A 83.3 98.9 Half Power Bandwidth (Hz) N/A 5.6 7.8 Q Factor N/A 14.9 12.7 Peak to Peak Deflection at N/A 19.5 15.9 Resonance (mm) Quasi Static Peak to Peak Deflection N/A 1.4 1.1 (mm) Dynamic Displacement, 9.3 tip mass, +/- 100 volt signal Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Resonant Frequency (Hz) N/A 20.5 26.4 Half Power Bandwidth (Hz) N/A 1.4 1.8 Q Factor N/A 14.6 14.7 Peak to Peak Deflection at N/A 23.5 19.8 Resonance (mm) Quasi Static Peak to Peak Deflection N/A 1.8 1.8 (mm) 11 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-1001 Sensitivity, middle clamp, no added tip mass Sensitivity (mV/g) 145 Upper Frequency Limit (Hz) 49.0 Resonance (Hz) 135.0 Sensitivity at Resonance (V/g) 6.6 PLOTS PPA-1001 | Resonant Frequency Range PPA-1001 100 Displacement Amplitude (inches) 0.0 0.004 0.008 0.012 0.016 0.020 0.024 0.028 0.031 0.035 0.039 Clamp 0 0.4 1.44 Clamp 6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 0.35 1.26 10 0.3 1.08 Tip Mass (g) 1 Force Amplitude (Newtons)000..12.255 000...579420Force Amplitude (ounces) 0.1 0.36 0.1 0.05 0.18 0 0.00 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0.01 Displacement Amplitude (mm) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Frequency (Hz) Figure 10: Refer to Section 4.3 for more information on tuning your piezo. Figure 11: Static displacement and block force are compared for the three different clamp locations. The piezo was driven with 100 volts to generate this data.. 12 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-1001 PLOTS PPA-1001 | No Tip Mass 100 3.937 PPA-1001 | 09.3g Tip Mass Clamp 0 100 3.937 Clamp 6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Peak to Peak Deflection (mm) 110 00..033994Peak to Peak Displacement (inches) Peak to Peak Deflection (mm) 110 00..033994Peak to Peak Displacement (inches) 0.110 Frequ1e0n0cy (Hz) 10000.004 0.110 Frequ1e0n0cy (Hz) 10000.004 Figure 12: The peak to peak tip displacement is provided for when the piezo is driven with a ± 100 volt signal. PPA-1001 10.0 33 Piezo Output (V)1.00 03 Amplitude Deviation (dB) 0.10 -3 0.01 10 100 1000 Frequency (Hz) Figure 13: The frequency response of the accelerometer is provided with ±3 dB error bands to highlight the frequency range where accurate measurement can be expected. 13 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-1011 PPA-1011: DESCRIPTION OVERVIEW The PPA-1011 is recommended for energy harvesting and sensing Performance data for the PPA-1011 is summarized in the following applications. It also exhibits good performance as a resonant tables and plots. Refer to Section 6 for information on how this actuator. data was gathered. Please note that this data is to be used only as reference and that there is some variability from unit to unit. Temperature, clamp conditions, drive quality, all can contribute to SPECIFICATIONS additional variability. All test data was gathered at room temperature and with the PPA-9001 clamp kit hardware. Overview Capacitance (nF) 100 DIMENSIONS Mass (g) 3.0 Full Scale Voltage Range (V) ±120 5x 2.1 71.0 PZT 46.0 Layer Material¹ Thickness (mils) Thickness (mm) 12.7 10.5 FR4 3.0 0.08 8.0 5.3 Copper 1.4 0.03 0 2P0Z.T8 25.4 PZT 5H 6.0 0.15 8x 3.2 Copper 1.4 0.03 FToRt4al² 1248..00 00..3761 23.0 21.0 20.0 15.5 10.0 Clamp -6.0 Clamp 0 Clamp 6.0 40.7 44.5 48.0 Figure 14: The overall dimensions (mm) for the PPA-1011 are ¹Information on material properties is provided in Section 5. shown. The total thickness is 0.71 mm (28 mils). ²The layer thicknesses do not perfectly add up to the actual thickness of the product due to the epoxy layers. These epoxy layers can be ignored for finite element analysis however. Stiffness Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Effective Stiffness 267.45 446.28 591.81 (N/m) Effective Mass (g) 0.645 0.614 0.506 Max Peak to Peak Deflection (mm) 21.0 20.5 17.0 See Section 4.3 for more information on how to use this data to tune your piezo. 14 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-1011 SPECIFICATIONS Energy Harvesting Data for Middle Clamp Location Acceleration Frequency Tip Mass RMS Power RMS Voltage RMS Current Resistance RMS Open Peak to Peak Peak to Peak Amplitude (g) (Hz) (gram) (mW) (V) (mA) (kΩ) Circuit Displacement Displacement (mm) (in) 0.25 147.0 0.0 0.1 1.1 0.1 12.1 1.7 0.9 0.04 0.50 146.0 0.0 0.3 1.8 0.1 12.6 2.8 1.4 0.06 1.00 146.0 0.0 0.7 2.7 0.3 10.2 4.3 2.2 0.09 2.00 145.0 0.0 2.1 4.6 0.5 10.1 7.3 3.7 0.15 0.25 60.0 2.7 0.4 3.3 0.1 25.0 5.7 2.7 0.11 0.50 60.0 2.6 1.1 4.2 0.3 15.8 0.6 3.5 0.14 1.00 60.0 2.6 3.2 7.9 0.4 19.5 13.8 7.0 0.28 2.00 60.0 2.6 9.6 12.8 0.7 17.3 20.7 10.1 0.40 0.25 20.8 25.3 2.5 13.8 0.2 76.6 20.2 9.7 0.38 0.50 21.0 25.3 5.4 14.9 0.4 41.2 26.9 12.9 0.51 1.00 21.0 25.3 16.0 23.2 0.7 33.7 39.7 34.1 1.34 Block Force and Static Displacement, 100 volt signal Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Block Force Amplitude (N) 0.09 0.11 0.11 Displacement Amplitude (mm) 0.40 0.36 0.34 Dynamic displacement, no added tip mass, +/- 100 volt signal Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Resonant Frequency (Hz) 102.5 133.7 172.2 Half Power Bandwidth (Hz) 5.0 7.6 10.4 Q Factor 20.5 17.6 16.6 Peak to Peak Deflection at 15.4 14.8 12.5 Resonance (mm) Quasi Static Peak to Peak Deflection 0.8 0.9 0.8 (mm) Dynamic Displacement, 9.3 tip mass, +/- 100 volt signal Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Resonant Frequency (Hz) 26.1 32.1 39.1 Half Power Bandwidth (Hz) 0.8 1.2 1.8 Q Factor 32.6 26.8 21.7 Peak to Peak Deflection at 20.4 20.6 16.7 Resonance (mm) Quasi Static Peak to Peak Deflection 0.8 1.0 0.8 (mm) 15 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-1011 Sensitivity, middle clamp, no added tip mass Sensitivity (mV/g) 93.11 Upper Frequency Limit (Hz) 80.0 Resonance (Hz) 135.0 Sensitivity at Resonance (V/g) 4.3 PLOTS PPA-1011 PPA-1011 | Resonant Frequency Range Displacement Amplitude (inches) 100 0.0 0.004 0.008 0.012 0.016 0.020 0.024 0.028 0.031 0.035 0.039 0.4 1.44 Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp -6 Clamp 6 0.35 CCllaammpp 06 1.26 10 0.3 1.08 Tip Mass (g) 1 Force Amplitude (Newtons)000..12.255 000...579420Force Amplitude (ounces) 0.1 0.36 0.1 0.05 0.18 0 0.00 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 Displacement Amplitude (mm) 0.01 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Frequency (Hz) Figure 15: Refer to Section 4.3 for more information on tuning Figure 16: Static displacement and block force are compared for the three different clamp locations. The piezo was driven your piezo. with 100 volts to generate this data. 16 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-1011 PLOTS PPA-1011 | No Tip Mass PPA-1011 | 09.3g Tip Mass 100 3.937 100 3.937 Clamp -6 Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Clamp 6 Peak to Peak Deflection (mm) 110 00..033994Peak to Peak Displacement (inches) Peak to Peak Deflection (mm) 110 00..033994Peak to Peak Displacement (inches) 0.1 0.004 0.1 0.004 10 100 1000 10 100 1000 Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz) Figure 17: The peak to peak tip displacement is provided for when the piezo is driven with a ± 100 volt signal. PPA-1011 10.0 33 Piezo Output (V)1.00 mplitude Deviation (dB) 3 A 0.10 0 -3 0.01 10 100 1000 Frequency (Hz) Figure 18: The frequency response of the accelerometer is provided with ±3 dB error bands to highlight the frequency range where accurate measurement can be expected. 17 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-1012 PPA-1012: OVERVIEW DESCRIPTION The PPA-1012 is single layer piezo product that offers decent Performance data for the PPA-1012 is summarized in the following performance as a bender. It’s much wider than the other products tables and plots. Refer to Section 6 for information on how this which enable more tip mass to be added easily with is useful data was gathered. Please note that this data is to be used only in some applications. This product is also recommended for as reference and that there is some variability from unit to unit. bonded applications. Temperature, clamp conditions, drive quality, all can contribute to additional variability. All test data was gathered at room temperature and with the PPA-9001 clamp kit hardware. SPECIFICATIONS Overview DIMENSIONS Capacitance (nF) 120 Mass (g) 6.0 Full Scale Voltage Range (V) ±200 5x 2.1 71.0 PZT 46.0 12.7 Layer Material Thickness (mils) Thickness (mm) 10.5 8.0 FR4 3.0 0.08 5.3 0 2P0Z.T8 25.4 Copper 1.4 0.03 8x 3.2 PZT 5H 10.0 0.25 CFRo4pper 11.44.0 00..0336 23.0 21.0 20.0 15.5 10.0 Clamp -6.0 Clamp 0 Clamp 6.0 40.7 44.5 48.0 Total 30.0 0.76 Figure 29: The overall dimensions (mm) for the PPA-1012 are shown. The total thickness is 0.76 mm (30 mils). 1Information on material properties is provided in Section 5. 2The layer thicknesses do not perfectly add up to the actual thickness of the product due to the epoxy layers. These epoxy layers can be ignored for finite element analysis however. Stiffness Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Effective Stiffness 497.59 769.74 120.05 (N/m) Effective Mass (g) 1.289 1.077 1.036 Max Tip Deflection 2.0 8.0 8.0 (mm) See Section 4.3 for more information on how to use this data to tune your piezo. 18 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-1012 SPECIFICATIONS Energy Harvesting Data for Middle Clamp Location Acceleration Frequency Tip Mass RMS Power RMS Voltage RMS Current Resistance RMS Open Peak to Peak Peak to Peak Amplitude (g) (Hz) (gram) (mW) (V) (mA) (kΩ) Circuit Displacement Displacement (mm) (in) 0.25 135.0 0.0 0.1 0.7 0.1 7.2 1.3 0.7 0.03 0.50 134.0 0.0 0.2 1.3 0.2 7.6 2.1 1.2 0.05 1.00 133.0 0.0 0.6 2.1 0.3 7.2 3.4 1.9 0.08 2.00 132.0 0.0 1.5 3.7 0.4 9.1 5.3 3.2 0.12 0.25 60.0 5.4 0.2 2.0 0.1 16.8 3.3 1.6 0.06 0.50 60.0 5.4 0.6 3.5 0.2 21.5 5.1 2.6 0.10 1.00 60.0 4.9 1.4 6.3 0.2 27.4 7.9 4.1 0.16 2.00 60.0 4.4 3.5 7.7 0.5 16.8 11.6 6.7 0.25 0.25 22.0 38.0 0.4 4.1 0.1 40.3 6.5 3.6 0.13 0.50 22.0 38.0 1.9 8.7 0.2 40.5 12.7 7.8 0.29 1.00 23.0 38.0 7.1 16.2 0.4 36.7 22.7 12.6 0.46 Block Force and Static Displacement, 100 volt signal Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Block Force Amplitude (N) 0.11 0.14 0.17 Displacement Amplitude (mm) 0.30 0.44 0.29 Dynamic displacement, no added tip mass, +/- 100 volt signal Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Resonant Frequency (Hz) 98.9 124.0 171.8 Half Power Bandwidth (Hz) 6.4 10.2 13.4 Q Factor 15.5 12.2 12.8 Peak to Peak Deflection at 4.5 3.8 4.0 Resonance (mm) Quasi Static Peak to Peak Deflection 0.4 0.3 0.3 (mm) Dynamic Displacement, 9.3 tip mass, +/- 100 volt signal Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Resonant Frequency (Hz) 27.4 34.8 43.0 Half Power Bandwidth (Hz) 5.8 1.4 1.8 Q Factor 4.7 24.9 23.9 Peak to Peak Deflection at 1.5 7.5 7.6 Resonance (mm) Quasi Static Peak to Peak Deflection 0.3 0.4 0.5 (mm) 19 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-1012 Sensitivity, middle clamp, no added tip mass Sensitivity (mV/g) 106 Upper Frequency Limit (Hz) 80.0 Resonance (Hz) 133.0 Sensitivity at Resonance (V/g) 3.6 PLOTS PPA-1012 | Resonant Frequency Range PPA-1012 100 Displacement Amplitude (inches) CCllaammpp -06 0.40.0 0.004 0.008 0.012 0.016 0.020 0.024 0.028 0.031 0.035 0.0319.44 Clamp 6 Clamp -6 Clamp 0 0.35 Clamp 6 1.26 10 0.3 1.08 Tip Mass (g) 1 Force Amplitude (Newtons)000..12.255 000...579420Force Amplitude (ounces) 0.1 0.1 0.36 0.05 0.18 0 0.00 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0.010 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Displacement Amplitude (mm) Frequency (Hz) Figure 30: Refer to Section 4.3 for more information on tuning Figure 31: Static displacement and block force are compared your piezo. for the three different clamp locations. The piezo was driven with 100 volts to generate this data 20 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-1012 PPA-1012 | No Tip Mass PPA-1012 | 15.5 Tip Mass 100 3.937 100 3.937 Clamp -6 Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Clamp 6 Peak to Peak Deflection (mm) 110 00..033994Peak to Peak Displacement (inches) Peak to Peak Deflection (mm) 110 00..033994Peak to Peak Displacement (inches) 0.1 0.004 0.1 0.004 10 100 1000 10 100 1000 Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz) Figure 32: The peak to peak tip displacement is provided for when the piezo is driven with a ± 100 volt signal. PPA-1012 10.0 31 Piezo Output (V)1.00 3 Amplitude Deviation (dB) 0.10 0 -3 0.01 10 100 1000 Frequency (Hz) Figure 33: The frequency response of the accelerometer is provided with ±3 dB error bands to highlight the frequency range where accurate measurement can be expected. 21 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-1013 PPA-1013: OVERVIEW DIMENSIONS The PPA-1013 is single layer piezo product with a very thick piezo making it optimal in bonded configurations. Its thickness makes 5x 2.1 71.0 it ineffective as a bender. PZT 46.0 12.7 10.5 8.0 5.3 SPECIFICATIONS 0 2P0Z.T8 25.4 Overview 8x 3.2 Capacitance (nF) 24 MFualls Ssc (agl)e Voltage Range (V) 2±15.500 23.0 21.0 20.0 15.5 10.0 Clamp -6.0 Clamp 0 Clamp 6.0 40.7 44.5 48.0 Layer Material Thickness (mils) Thickness (mm) Figure 34: The overall dimensions (mm) for the PPA-1013 are FR4 3.0 0.08 shown. The total thickness is 1.98mm (78 mils). Copper 1.4 0.03 PZT 5H 58.5 1.49 Copper 1.4 0.03 FR4 14.0 0.36 Total 78.0 1.98 1Information on material properties is provided in Section 5. 2The layer thicknesses do not perfectly add up to the actual thickness of the product due to the epoxy layers. These epoxy layers can be ignored for finite element analysis however. 22 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-1014 PPA-1014: OVERVIEW DESCRIPTION The PPA-1014 is a single layer product recommended for Performance data for the PPA-1014 is summarized in the following energy harvesting and sensing applications. It also exhibits good tables and plots. Refer to Section 6 for information on how this performance as a resonant actuator. It is not recommended data was gathered. Please note that this data is to be used only for applications requiring high force output. This product has a as reference and that there is some variability from unit to unit. relatively high natural frequency compared to the other products Temperature, clamp conditions, drive quality, all can contribute to which is beneficial for some applications. Due to its smaller size and additional variability. All test data was gathered at room temperature good performance this is a popular product for many applications. and with the PPA-9001 clamp kit hardware. SPECIFICATIONS DIMENSIONS Overview Capacitance (nF) 40 Mass (g) 2.0 5x 2.1 71.0 PZT 46.0 Full Scale Voltage Range (V) ±150 12.7 10.5 8.0 Layer Material Thickness (mils) Thickness (mm) 5.3 FR4 3.0 0.08 0 2P0Z.T8 25.4 Copper 1.4 0.03 8x 3.2 PZT 5H 7.5 0.19 Copper 1.4 0.03 23.0 21.0 20.0 15.5 10.0 Clamp -6.0 Clamp 0 Clamp 6.0 40.7 44.5 48.0 FR4 14.0 0.36 Total 28.0 0.71 Figure 35: The overall dimensions (mm) for the PPA-1014 are shown. The total thickness is 0.71 mm (28 mils). 1Information on material properties is provided in Section 5. 2The layer thicknesses do not perfectly add up to the actual thickness of the product due to the epoxy layers. These epoxy layers can be ignored for finite element analysis however. Stiffness Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Effective Stiffness 898.54 0.339 0.240 (N/m) Effective Mass (g) 0.336 0.339 0.240 Max Peak to Peak 6.0 5.0 5.0 Deflection (mm) See Section 4.3 for more information on how to use this data to tune your piezo. 23 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-1014 SPECIFICATIONS Energy Harvesting Data for Middle Clamp Location Acceleration Frequency Tip Mass RMS Power RMS Voltage RMS Current Resistance RMS Open Peak to Peak Peak to Peak Amplitude (g) (Hz) (gram) (mW) (V) (mA) (kΩ) Circuit Displacement Displacement (mm) (in) 0.25 413.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.1 9.0 1.2 0.3 0.01 0.50 410.0 0.0 0.1 1.3 0.1 13.6 2.2 0.5 0.02 1.00 404.0 0.0 0.4 2.0 0.2 11.1 3.3 0.7 0.03 2.00 400.0 0.0 1.1 3.2 0.4 8.9 5.7 0.8 0.03 0.25 60.0 15.1 1.2 10.8 0.1 95.7 14.4 2.4 0.09 0.50 60.0 15.1 3.7 13.9 0.3 52.1 25.8 3.3 0.13 1.00 60.0 14.9 9.8 19.5 0.5 38.8 30.5 4.0 0.15 2.00 60.0 14.9 25.9 27.3 0.9 28.8 36.1 5.0 0.19 0.25 47.0 25.3 2.0 14.1 0.1 100.0 17.0 3.1 0.12 0.50 46.0 25.3 4.8 17.2 0.3 61.9 24.8 4.6 0.18 Block Force and Static Displacement, 100 volt signal Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Block Force Amplitude (N) 0.09 0.09 0.23 Displacement Amplitude (mm) 0.15 0.19 0.09 Dynamic displacement, no added tip mass, +/- 100 volt signal Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Resonant Frequency (Hz) 260.2 384.2 663.9 Half Power Bandwidth (Hz) 9.6 72.4 54.4 Q Factor 27.1 5.3 12.2 Peak to Peak Deflection at 5.4 1.8 1.6 Resonance (mm) Quasi Static Peak to Peak Deflection 0.2 0.3 0.2 (mm) Dynamic Displacement, 9.3 tip mass, +/- 100 volt signal Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Resonant Frequency (Hz) 48.6 68.2 105.2 Half Power Bandwidth (Hz) 8.6 14.4 7.2 Q Factor 5.7 4.7 14.6 Peak to Peak Deflection at 6.1 4.1 9.0 Resonance (mm) Quasi Static Peak to Peak Deflection 0.9 0.8 0.5 (mm) 24 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-1014 Sensitivity, middle clamp, no added tip mass Sensitivity (mV/g) 56 Upper Frequency Limit (Hz) 252.0 Resonance (Hz) 417.0 Sensitivity at Resonance (V/g) 4.0 PLOTS PPA-1014 | Resonant Frequency Range PPA-1014 100 Displacement Amplitude (inches) CCllaammpp -06 0.40.0 0.004 0.008 0.012 0.016 0.020 0.024 0.028 0.031 0.035 0.0319.44 Clamp 6 Clamp -6 Clamp 0 0.35 Clamp 6 1.26 10 0.3 1.08 Tip Mass (g) 1 Force Amplitude (Newtons)000..12.255 000...579420Force Amplitude (ounces) 0.1 0.1 0.36 0.05 0.18 0 0.00 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0.010 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Displacement Amplitude (mm) Frequency (Hz) Figure 37: Static displacement and block force are compared Figure 36: Refer to Section 4.3 for more information on tuning for the three different clamp locations. The piezo was driven your piezo. with 100 volts to generate this data. 25 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-1014 PPA-1014 | No Tip Mass PPA-1014 | 09.3g Tip Mass 100 3.937 100 3.937 Clamp -6 Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Clamp 6 Peak to Peak Deflection (mm) 110 00..033994Peak to Peak Displacement (inches) Peak to Peak Deflection (mm) 110 00..033994Peak to Peak Displacement (inches) 0.1 0.004 0.1 0.004 10 100 1000 10 100 1000 Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz) Figure 38: The peak to peak tip displacement is provided for when the piezo is driven with a ± 100 volt signal. PPA-1014 10.0 37 Piezo Output (V)1.00 mplitude Deviation (dB) A 0.10 3 0 -3 0.01 10 100 1000 Frequency (Hz) Figure 39: The frequency response of the accelerometer is provided with ±3 dB error bands to highlight the frequency range where accurate measurement can be expected. 26 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-1021 PPA-1021: OVERVIEW DESCRIPTION The PPA-1021 is a single layer product recommended for Performance data for the PPA-1021 is summarized in the following energy harvesting and sensing applications. It also exhibits good tables and plots. Refer to Section 6 for information on how this performance as a resonant actuator. It is not recommended for data was gathered. Please note that this data is to be used only applications requiring high force output. This is a good cost as reference and that there is some variability from unit to unit. effective alternative over some of the other products. Temperature, clamp conditions, drive quality, all can contribute to additional variability. All test data was gathered at room temperature and with the PPA-9001 clamp kit hardware. SPECIFICATIONS Overview DIMENSIONS Capacitance (nF) 22 71.0 Mass (g) 1.4 PZT 46.0 2.1 Full Scale Voltage Range (V) ±200 4x 3.2 5.2 Layer Material Thickness (mils) Thickness (mm) 0 PZT 6.4 10.3 FR4 3.0 0.08 Copper 1.4 0.03 PCZoTp p5eHr 110.4.0 00..2053 23.0 21.0 15.5 10.0 Clamp -6.0 Clamp 0 Clamp 6.0 40.7 44.5 48.0 Figure 45: The overall dimensions (mm) for the PPA-1021 are FR4 14.0 0.36 shown. The total thickness is 0.74 mm (29 mils). Total 29.0 0.74 1Information on material properties is provided in Section 5. 2The layer thicknesses do not perfectly add up to the actual thickness of the product due to the epoxy layers. These epoxy layers can be ignored for finite element analysis however. Stiffness Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Effective Stiffness 211.60 261.21 442.60 (N/m) Effective Mass (g) 0.301 0.156 0.233 Max Peak to Peak 12.0 11.0 9.0 Deflection (mm) See Section 4.3 for more information on how to use this data to tune your piezo. 27 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-1021 SPECIFICATIONS Energy Harvesting Data for Middle Clamp Location Acceleration Frequency Tip Mass RMS Power RMS Voltage RMS Current Resistance RMS Open Peak to Peak Peak to Peak Amplitude (g) (Hz) (gram) (mW) (V) (mA) (kΩ) Circuit Displacement Displacement (mm) (in) 0.25 175.0 0.0 0.0 1.2 0.0 47.3 2.1 0.6 0.02 0.50 174.0 0.0 0.1 2.3 0.0 51.9 3.5 0.9 0.04 1.00 173.0 0.0 0.3 3.6 0.1 44.5 5.9 1.5 0.06 2.00 171.0 0.0 0.9 5.6 0.2 35.1 9.8 2.5 0.10 0.25 60.0 1.8 0.2 4.1 0.0 82.5 7.2 1.5 0.06 0.50 60.0 1.7 0.7 8.6 0.1 113.9 14.3 2.9 0.11 1.00 60.0 1.7 1.6 14.0 0.1 125.1 20.5 5.4 0.21 2.00 60.0 1.7 4.4 23.2 0.2 122.9 32.2 8.9 0.34 0.25 23.0 12.7 1.3 17.8 0.1 250.6 27.3 6.5 0.25 0.50 23.0 12.7 2.3 23.3 0.1 232.5 35.5 8.8 0.33 1.00 22.0 12.7 4.5 28.2 0.2 174.9 46.8 16.1 0.59 Block Force and Static Displacement, 100 volt signal Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Block Force Amplitude (N) 0.06 0.06 0.09 Displacement Amplitude (mm) 0.24 0.23 0.20 Dynamic displacement, no added tip mass, +/- 100 volt signal Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Resonant Frequency (Hz) 133.5 174.3 219.5 Half Power Bandwidth (Hz) 4.0 6.8 19.6 Q Factor 33.4 25.6 11.2 Peak to Peak Deflection at 9.8 8.5 4.5 Resonance (mm) Quasi Static Peak to Peak Deflection 0.5 0.4 0.3 (mm) Dynamic Displacement, 9.3 tip mass, +/- 100 volt signal Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Resonant Frequency (Hz) 39.7 48.8 58.0 Half Power Bandwidth (Hz) 1.8 1.6 3.0 Q Factor 22.1 30.5 19.3 Peak to Peak Deflection at 11.5 11.0 8.3 Resonance (mm) Quasi Static Peak to Peak Deflection 0.5 0.4 0.5 (mm) 28 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-1021 Sensitivity, middle clamp, no added tip mass Sensitivity (mV/g) 146 Upper Frequency Limit (Hz) 98.0 Resonance (Hz) 182.0 Sensitivity at Resonance (V/g) 7.4 PLOTS PPA-1021 | Resonant Frequency Range PPA-1021 100 Displacement Amplitude (inches) CCllaammpp -06 0.40.0 0.004 0.008 0.012 0.016 0.020 0.024 0.028 0.031 0.035 0.0319.44 Clamp 6 Clamp -6 Clamp 0 0.35 Clamp 6 1.26 10 0.3 1.08 Tip Mass (g) 1 Force Amplitude (Newtons)000..12.255 000...579420Force Amplitude (ounces) 0.1 0.36 0.1 0.05 0.18 0 0.00 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0.01 Displacement Amplitude (mm) 0 50 100 150 200 250 Frequency (Hz) Figure 47: Static displacement and block force are compared Figure 46: Refer to Section 4.3 for more information on tuning for the three different clamp locations. The piezo was driven your piezo. with 100 volts to generate this data. 29 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-1021 PPA-1021 | No Tip Mass PPA-1021 | 03.1g Tip Mass 100 3.937 100 3.937 Clamp -6 Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Clamp 6 Peak to Peak Deflection (mm) 110 00..033994Peak to Peak Displacement (inches) Peak to Peak Deflection (mm) 110 00..033994Peak to Peak Displacement (inches) 0.1 0.004 0.1 0.004 10 100 1000 10 100 1000 Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz) Figure 48: The peak to peak tip displacement is provided for when the piezo is driven with a ± 100 volt signal. PPA-1021 10.0 34 Piezo Output (V)1.00 03 Amplitude Deviation (dB) 0.10 -3 0.01 10 100 1000 Frequency (Hz) Figure 49: The frequency response of the accelerometer is provided with ±3 dB error bands to highlight the frequency range where accurate measurement can be expected. 30 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-1022 PPA-1022: OVERVIEW DESCRIPTION The PPA-1022 is a single layer product recommended for all Performance data for the PPA-1022 is summarized in the following applications where the most important requirement is size. Due to tables and plots. Refer to Section 6 for information on how this its smaller size it has inferior performance compared to the other data was gathered. Please note that this data is to be used only products but its small size also results in lower costs. as reference and that there is some variability from unit to unit. Temperature, clamp conditions, drive quality, all can contribute to additional variability. All test data was gathered at room temperature SPECIFICATIONS and with the PPA-9001 clamp kit hardware. Overview Capacitance (nF) 22 DIMENSIONS Mass (g) 1.4 Full Scale Voltage Range (V) ±200 71.0 PZT 46.0 Layer Material Thickness (mils) Thickness (mm) 2.1 4x 3.2 FR4 3.0 0.08 5.2 Copper 1.4 0.03 0 PZT 6.4 10.3 PZT 5H 7.0 0.18 Copper 1.4 0.03 FR4 14.0 0.36 23.0 21.0 15.5 10.0 Clamp -6.0 Clamp 0 Clamp 6.0 40.7 44.5 48.0 Total 27.4 0.70 Figure 50: The overall dimensions (mm) for the PPA-1022 are 1Information on material properties is provided in Section 5. shown. The total thickness is 0.74 mm (29 mils). 2The layer thicknesses do not perfectly add up to the actual thickness of the product due to the epoxy layers. These epoxy layers can be ignored for finite element analysis however. Stiffness Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Effective Stiffness 517.88 853.91 1722.18 (N/m) Effective Mass (g) 0.205 0.088 0.103 Max Peak to Peak 8.0 7.0 5.0 Deflection (mm) See Section 4.3 for more information on how to use this data to tune your piezo. 31 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-1022 SPECIFICATIONS Energy Harvesting Data for Middle Clamp Location Acceleration Frequency Tip Mass RMS Power RMS Voltage RMS Current Resistance RMS Open Peak to Peak Peak to Peak Amplitude (g) (Hz) (gram) (mW) (V) (mA) (kΩ) Circuit Displacement Displacement (mm) (in) 0.25 441.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 0.0 89.9 2.0 0.1 0.005 0.50 440.0 0.0 0.0 2.0 0.0 87.1 3.4 0.2 0.009 1.00 438.0 0.0 0.2 2.6 0.1 43.1 5.6 0.4 0.015 2.00 437.0 0.0 0.5 5.1 0.1 54.3 9.3 0.6 0.023 0.25 60.0 4.8 0.3 9.0 0.0 297.7 14.5 1.6 0.062 0.50 60.0 4.8 0.7 13.9 0.0 288.2 25.3 2.9 0.112 1.00 60.0 4.8 2.9 26.2 0.1 234.0 40.4 5.0 0.192 2.00 60.0 4.8 5.5 33.0 0.2 198.0 52.3 6.7 0.254 0.25 41.5 12.6 1.1 18.1 0.1 309.2 31.7 2.6 0.100 0.50 41.0 12.6 2.0 23.7 0.1 281.7 36.9 3.2 0.118 Block Force and Static Displacement, 100 volt signal Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Block Force Amplitude (N) 0.03 0.06 0.09 Displacement Amplitude (mm) 0.16 0.13 0.07 Dynamic displacement, no added tip mass, +/- 100 volt signal Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Resonant Frequency (Hz) 252.9 408.4 650.3 Half Power Bandwidth (Hz) 10.6 10.8 15.4 Q Factor 23.9 37.8 42.2 Peak to Peak Deflection at 4.5 4.2 2.5 Resonance (mm) Quasi Static Peak to Peak Deflection 0.4 0.3 0.4 (mm) Dynamic Displacement, 9.3 tip mass, +/- 100 volt signal Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Resonant Frequency (Hz) 63.0 85.2 116.7 Half Power Bandwidth (Hz) 0.8 1.4 2.0 Q Factor 78.8 60.9 58.4 Peak to Peak Deflection at 7.6 6.1 4.1 Resonance (mm) Quasi Static Peak to Peak Deflection 0.2 0.3 0.2 (mm) 32 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-1022 Sensitivity, middle clamp, no added tip mass Sensitivity (mV/g) 71 Upper Frequency Limit (Hz) 263.0 Resonance (Hz) 457.0 Sensitivity at Resonance (V/g) 6.5 PLOTS PPA-1022 | Resonant Frequency Range PPA-1022 100 Displacement Amplitude (inches) 0.0 0.004 0.008 0.012 0.016 0.020 0.024 0.028 0.031 0.035 0.039 Clamp -6 0.4 1.44 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Clamp -6 Clamp 0 0.35 Clamp 6 1.26 10 0.3 1.08 Tip Mass (g) 1 Force Amplitude (Newtons)000..12.255 000...579420Force Amplitude (ounces) 0.1 0.36 0.1 0.05 0.18 0 0.00 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0.01 Displacement Amplitude (mm) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Frequency (Hz) Figure 52: Static displacement and block force are compared Figure 51: Refer to Section 4.3 for more information on tuning for the three different clamp locations. The piezo was driven your piezo. with 100 volts to generate this data. 33 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-1022 PPA-1022 | No Tip Mass PPA-1022 | 03.1g Tip Mass 100 3.937 100 3.937 Clamp -6 Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Clamp 6 Peak to Peak Deflection (mm) 110 00..033994Peak to Peak Displacement (inches) Peak to Peak Deflection (mm) 110 00..033994Peak to Peak Displacement (inches) 0.1 0.004 0.1 0.004 10 100 1000 10 100 1000 Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz) Figure 53: The peak to peak tip displacement is provided for when the piezo is driven with a ± 100 volt signal. PPA-1022 10.0 39 Piezo Output (V)1.00 mplitude Deviation (dB) A 0.10 3 0 -3 0.01 10 100 1000 Frequency (Hz) Figure 54: The frequency response of the accelerometer is provided with ±3 dB error bands to highlight the frequency range where accurate measurement can be expected. 34 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-2011 PPA-2011: OVERVIEW DESCRIPTION The PPA-2011 is recommended for energy harvesting and sensing Performance data for the PPA-2011 is summarized in the following applications. It also exhibits good performance as a resonant tables and plots. Refer to Section 6 for information on how this actuator. With two piezo layers it generally offers improved data was gathered. Please note that this data is to be used only performance over the PPA-1011 but at a slightly higher cost. as reference and that there is some variability from unit to unit. Temperature, clamp conditions, drive quality, all can contribute to additional variability. All test data was gathered at room temperature SPECIFICATIONS and with the PPA-9001 clamp kit hardware. Overview DIMENSIONS Capacitance (nF) 190 Mass (g) 4.0 Full Scale Voltage Range (V) ±120 5x 2.1 71.0 PZT 46.0 Layer Material¹ Thickness (mils) Thickness (mm) 12.7 10.5 8.0 FR4 3.0 0.08 5.3 Copper 1.4 0.03 0 2P0Z.T8 25.4 PZT 5H 6.0 0.15 8x 3.2 Copper 1.4 0.03 FCRo4pper 31..04 00..0083 23.0 21.0 20.0 15.5 10.0 Clamp -6.0 Clamp 0 Clamp 6.0 40.7 44.5 48.0 Figure 19: The overall dimensions (mm) for the PPA-2011 are PZT 5H 6.0 0.15 shown. The total thickness is 0.76 mm (30 mils). Copper 1.4 0.03 FR4 3.0 0.08 Total 30.0 0.76 1Information on material properties is provided in Section 5. 2The layer thicknesses do not perfectly add up to the actual thickness of the product due to the epoxy layers. These epoxy layers can be ignored for finite element analysis however. Stiffness Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Effective Stiffness 386.08 573.67 861.10 (N/m) Effective Mass (g) 0.811 0.607 0.495 Max Tip Deflection 16.0 15.5 13.0 (mm) See Section 4.3 for more information on how to use this data to tune your piezo. 35 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-2011 SPECIFICATIONS Energy Harvesting Data for Middle Clamp Location Acceleration Frequency Tip Mass RMS Power RMS Voltage RMS Current Resistance RMS Open Peak to Peak Peak to Peak Amplitude (g) (Hz) (gram) (mW) (V) (mA) (kΩ) Circuit Displacement Displacement (mm) (in) 0.25 154.0 0.0 0.1 0.9 0.1 7.0 2.3 0.6 0.03 0.50 152.0 0.0 0.4 1.2 0.3 4.0 3.7 1.0 0.04 1.00 149.0 0.0 1.2 2.0 0.6 3.3 6.0 1.6 0.06 2.00 147.0 0.0 4.0 4.5 0.9 5.1 9.2 2.6 0.10 0.25 60.0 3.5 0.5 2.3 0.2 10.5 6.3 1.6 0.06 0.50 60.0 3.4 1.5 3.7 0.4 9.0 9.1 2.3 0.09 1.00 60.0 3.3 4.3 7.9 0.5 14.7 14.8 4.3 0.17 2.00 60.0 3.4 10.4 13.7 0.8 18.2 23.3 6.9 0.27 0.25 24.0 25.3 4.1 9.9 0.4 24.0 23.3 4.8 0.19 0.50 24.0 25.3 11.5 21.3 0.5 39.4 35.9 7.9 0.31 1.00 23.8 25.3 31.0 31.0 1.0 30.9 49.6 12.0 0.47 2.00 23.0 25.3 34.0 34.0 2.0 17.2 61.5 18.5 0.73 Block Force and Static Displacement, 100 volt signal Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Block Force Amplitude (N) 0.06 0.80 0.12 Displacement Amplitude (mm) 0.94 0.94 0.83 Dynamic displacement, no added tip mass, +/- 100 volt signal Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Resonant Frequency (Hz) 109.8 150.7 210.5 Half Power Bandwidth (Hz) 7.4 10.0 15.2 Q Factor 14.8 15.1 13.8 Peak to Peak Deflection at 12.5 12.6 9.6 Resonance (mm) Quasi Static Peak to Peak Deflection 0.8 0.8 0.6 (mm) Dynamic Displacement, 9.3 tip mass, +/- 100 volt signal Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Resonant Frequency (Hz) 31.1 38.7 47.3 Half Power Bandwidth (Hz) 2.0 2.2 2.6 Q Factor 15.6 17.6 18.2 Peak to Peak Deflection at 15.9 15.2 12.6 Resonance (mm) Quasi Static Peak to Peak Deflection 1.0 0.9 0.6 (mm) 36 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-2011 Sensitivity, middle clamp, no added tip mass Sensitivity (mV/g) 175.13 Upper Frequency Limit (Hz) 108.0 Resonance (Hz) 178.0 Sensitivity at Resonance (V/g) 7.0 PLOTS PPA-2011 | Resonant Frequency Range PPA-2011 100 Displacement Amplitude (inches) CCllaammpp -06 0.40.0 0.004 0.008 0.012 0.016 0.020 0.024 0.028 0.031 0.035 0.0319.44 Clamp 6 Clamp -6 Clamp 0 0.35 Clamp 6 1.26 10 0.3 1.08 Tip Mass (g) 1 Force Amplitude (Newtons)000..12.255 000...579420Force Amplitude (ounces) 0.1 0.36 0.1 0.05 0.18 0 0.00 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0.01 Displacement Amplitude (mm) 0 50 100 150 200 250 Frequency (Hz) Figure 21: Static displacement and block force are compared Figure 20: Refer to Section 4.3 for more information on tuning for the three different clamp locations. The piezo was driven your piezo. with 100 volts to generate this data. 37 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-2011 PPA-2011 | No Tip Mass PPA-2011 | 09.3g Tip Mass 100 3.937 100 3.937 Clamp -6 Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Clamp 6 Peak to Peak Deflection (mm) 110 00..033994Peak to Peak Displacement (inches) Peak to Peak Deflection (mm) 110 00..033994Peak to Peak Displacement (inches) 0.1 0.004 0.1 0.004 10 100 1000 10 100 1000 Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz) Figure 22: The peak to peak tip displacement is provided for when the piezo is driven with a ± 100 volt signal. PPA-2011 10.0 32 Piezo Output (V)1.00 03 mplitude Deviation (dB) -3 A 0.10 0.01 10 100 1000 Frequency (Hz) Figure 23: The frequency response of the accelerometer is provided with ±3 dB error bands to highlight the frequency range where accurate measurement can be expected. 38 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-2014 PPA-2014: OVERVIEW DESCRIPTION The PPA-2014 is a double layer product recommended for all Performance data for the PPA-2014 is summarized in the following applications including energy harvesting, sensing applications, tables and plots. Refer to Section 6 for information on how this resonant actuation and force/deflection actuation. This product has data was gathered. Please note that this data is to be used only a relatively high natural frequency compared to the other products as reference and that there is some variability from unit to unit. which is beneficial for some applications. With two piezo layers it Temperature, clamp conditions, drive quality, all can contribute to generally offers improved performance over the PPA-2014 but at a additional variability. All test data was gathered at room temperature slightly higher cost. Due to its smaller size and good performance and with the PPA-9001 clamp kit hardware. this is a popular product for many applications. DIMENSIONS SPECIFICATIONS Overview Capacitance (nF) 95 5x 2.1 71.0 PZT 46.0 Mass (g) 2.9 12.7 10.5 8.0 Full Scale Voltage Range (V) ±150 5.3 Layer Material Thickness (mils) Thickness (mm) 0 2P0Z.T8 25.4 FR4 3.0 0.08 8x 3.2 Copper 1.4 0.03 PZT 5H 7.5 0.19 23.0 21.0 20.0 15.5 10.0 Clamp -6.0 Clamp 0 Clamp 6.0 40.7 44.5 48.0 Copper 1.4 0.03 FR4 3.0 0.08 Figure 40: The overall dimensions (mm) for the PPA-2014 are Copper 1.4 0.03 shown. The total thickness is 0.83 mm (32.5 mils). PZT 5H 7.5 0.19 Copper 1.4 0.03 FR4 3.0 0.08 Total 32.5 0.83 1Information on material properties is provided in Section 5. 2The layer thicknesses do not perfectly add up to the actual thickness of the product due to the epoxy layers. These epoxy layers can be ignored for finite element analysis however. Stiffness Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Effective Stiffness 1187.09 3882.41 6230.78 (N/m) Effective Mass (g) 0.427 0.588 0.318 Max Peak to Peak 7.0 5.0 3.0 Deflection (mm) See Section 4.3 for more information on how to use this data to tune your piezo. 39 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-2014 SPECIFICATIONS Energy Harvesting Data for Middle Clamp Location Acceleration Frequency Tip Mass RMS Power RMS Voltage RMS Current Resistance RMS Open Peak to Peak Peak to Peak Amplitude (g) (Hz) (gram) (mW) (V) (mA) (kΩ) Circuit Displacement Displacement (mm) (in) 0.25 493.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.1 10.5 1.4 0.1 0.004 0.50 491.0 0.0 0.1 1.2 0.1 9.5 2.4 0.2 0.006 1.00 488.0 0.0 0.5 1.8 0.3 6.9 3.7 0.2 0.008 2.00 483.0 0.0 1.4 2.5 0.6 4.3 5.8 0.3 0.014 0.25 63.0 25.3 1.8 9.7 0.2 51.3 17.6 0.8 0.032 0.50 62.0 25.3 5.9 15.5 0.4 41.0 28.6 1.4 0.051 1.00 62.0 25.3 15.2 23.5 0.6 36.4 36.7 1.9 0.069 2.00 64.0 25.3 36.1 27.6 1.3 21.1 41.0 2.4 0.083 0.25 60.0 26.0 1.9 7.4 0.3 28.5 19.1 0.9 0.034 0.50 60.0 25.6 6.2 16.8 0.4 45.2 30.8 1.3 0.048 1.00 60.0 25.9 14.9 24.2 0.6 39.4 39.7 1.8 0.066 2.00 60.0 26.5 36.6 29.7 1.2 24.1 43.1 2.3 0.081 Block Force and Static Displacement, 100 volt signal Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Block Force Amplitude (N) 0.28 0.54 0.57 Displacement Amplitude (mm) 0.30 0.27 0.22 Dynamic displacement, no added tip mass, +/- 100 volt signal Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Resonant Frequency (Hz) 265.4 443.9 704.5 Half Power Bandwidth (Hz) 19.2 46.2 117.4 Q Factor 13.8 9.6 6.0 Peak to Peak Deflection at 5.5 3.9 1.7 Resonance (mm) Quasi Static Peak to Peak Deflection 0.4 0.3 0.3 (mm) Dynamic Displacement, 9.3 tip mass, +/- 100 volt signal Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Resonant Frequency (Hz) 55.6 92.2 128.1 Half Power Bandwidth (Hz) 5.4 10.4 19.0 Q Factor 10.3 8.9 6.7 Peak to Peak Deflection at 6.8 4.8 2.9 Resonance (mm) Quasi Static Peak to Peak Deflection 0.6 0.5 0.4 (mm) 40 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-2014 Sensitivity, middle clamp, no added tip mass Sensitivity (mV/g) 88 Upper Frequency Limit (Hz) 300.0 Resonance (Hz) 506.0 Sensitivity at Resonance (V/g) 4.5 PLOTS PPA-2014 | Resonant Frequency Range PPA-2014 100 Displacement Amplitude (inches) CCllaammpp -06 1.40.0 0.004 0.008 0.012 0.016 0.020 0.024 0.028 0.031 0.035 0.0359.0 Clamp 6 Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 1.2 4.3 10 1 3.6 Tip Mass (g) 1 Force Amplitude (Newtons)00..68 22..29Force Amplitude (ounces) 0.4 1.4 0.1 0.2 0.7 0 0.0 0.01 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Displacement Amplitude (mm) Frequency (Hz) Figure 42: Static displacement and block force are compared Figure 41: Refer to Section 4.3 for more information on tuning for the three different clamp locations. The piezo was driven your piezo. with 100 volts to generate this data. 41 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-2014 PPA-2014 | No Tip Mass PPA-2014 | 09.3g Tip Mass 100 3.937 100 3.937 Clamp -6 Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Clamp 6 Peak to Peak Deflection (mm) 110 00..033994Peak to Peak Displacement (inches) Peak to Peak Deflection (mm) 110 00..033994Peak to Peak Displacement (inches) 0.1 0.004 0.1 0.004 10 100 1000 10 100 1000 Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz) Figure 43: The peak to peak tip displacement is provided for when the piezo is driven with a ± 100 volt signal. PPA-2014 10.0 34 Piezo Output (V)1.00 mplitude Deviation (dB) 3 A 0.10 0 -3 0.01 10 100 1000 Frequency (Hz) Figure 44: The frequency response of the accelerometer is provided with ±3 dB error bands to highlight the frequency range where accurate measurement can be expected. 42 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-4011 PPA-4011: OVERVIEW DESCRIPTION The PPA-4011 is recommended for all applications due its superior Performance data for the PPA-4011 is summarized in the following performance. This product incorporates four piezo wafers which tables and plots. Refer to Section 6 for information on how this drives up the cost on the unit compared to other options; but this data was gathered. Please note that this data is to be used only also results in significant performance improvements. as reference and that there is some variability from unit to unit. SPECIFICATIONS Temperature, clamp conditions, drive quality, all can contribute to additional variability. All test data was gathered at room temperature and with the PPA-9001 clamp kit hardware. Overview Capacitance (nF) 415 Mass (g) 7.6 DIMENSIONS Full Scale Voltage Range (V) ±120 Layer Material Thickness (mils) Thickness (mm) 5x 2.1 71.0 FR4 3.0 0.08 PZT 46.0 12.7 Copper 1.4 0.03 10.5 8.0 PZT 5H 6.0 0.15 5.3 0 2P0Z.T8 25.4 Copper 1.4 0.03 8x 3.2 FR4 3.0 0.08 CPZoTp p5eHr 16..40 00..0135 23.0 21.0 20.0 15.5 10.0 Clamp -6.0 Clamp 0 Clamp 6.0 40.7 44.5 48.0 Figure 24: The overall dimensions (mm) for the PPA-4011 are Copper 1.4 0.03 shown. The total thickness is 1.3 mm (52 mils). FR4 3.0 0.08 Copper 1.4 0.03 Stiffness FR4 6.0 0.15 Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Copper 1.4 0.03 Effective Stiffness 1934.93 4125.55 5534.45 PZT 5H 3.0 0.08 (N/m) Copper 1.4 0.03 Effective Mass (g) 1.457 1.480 1.936 PZT 5H 6.0 0.15 Max Tip Deflection 7.0 5.0 4.5 (mm) Copper 1.4 0.03 FR4 30 0.08 See Section 4.3 for more information on how to use this data to tune your Total 52.0 1.32 piezo. ¹Information on material properties is provided in Section 5. ²The layer thicknesses do not perfectly add up to the actual thickness of the product due to the epoxy layers. These epoxy layers can be ignored for finite element analysis however. 43 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-4011 SPECIFICATIONS Energy Harvesting Data for Middle Clamp Location Acceleration Frequency Tip Mass RMS Power RMS Voltage RMS Current Resistance RMS Open Peak to Peak Peak to Peak Amplitude (g) (Hz) (gram) (mW) (V) (mA) (kΩ) Circuit Displacement Displacement (mm) (in) 0.25 298.0 0.0 0.1 0.5 0.3 1.9 1.1 0.2 0.01 0.50 297.0 0.0 0.5 0.8 0.5 1.5 1.9 0.3 0.01 1.00 293.0 0.0 1.4 1.2 1.1 1.1 3.2 0.5 0.02 2.00 289.0 0.0 4.5 2.4 1.9 1.2 5.4 0.8 0.03 0.25 63.0 25.3 1.9 3.9 0.5 8.1 7.3 1.3 0.05 0.50 63.0 25.3 5.6 6.9 0.8 8.5 12.0 1.9 0.07 1.00 62.0 25.3 18.0 10.6 1.7 6.2 19.3 2.7 0.10 2.00 62.0 25.3 52.0 16.2 3.2 5.0 31.1 3.7 0.14 0.25 60.0 28.4 2.1 4.0 0.5 7.5 7.9 1.2 0.05 0.50 60.0 28.4 6.4 7.7 0.8 9.4 12.9 1.8 0.07 1.00 60.0 27.1 19.5 10.2 1.9 5.4 20.2 2.4 0.10 2.00 60.0 26.6 59.0 16.7 3.5 4.7 31.4 4.1 0.16 Block Force and Static Displacement, 100 volt signal Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Block Force Amplitude (N) 0.51 1.05 1.28 Displacement Amplitude (mm) 0.60 0.51 0.45 Dynamic displacement, no added tip mass, +/- 100 volt signal Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Resonant Frequency (Hz) 183.4 245.8 269.1 Half Power Bandwidth (Hz) 10.8 14.6 70.2 Q Factor 17.0 16.8 3.8 Peak to Peak Deflection at 4.70 2.77 0.74 Resonance (mm) Quasi Static Peak to Peak Deflection 0.42 0.66 0.35 (mm) Dynamic Displacement, 9.3 tip mass, +/- 100 volt signal Parameter Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Resonant Frequency (Hz) 67.5 92.5 111.7 Half Power Bandwidth (Hz) 3.6 5.4 6.4 Q Factor 18.8 17.1 17.5 Peak to Peak Deflection at 6.61 5.07 4.40 Resonance (mm) Quasi Static Peak to Peak Deflection 0.37 0.30 0.26 (mm) 44 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-4011 Sensitivity, middle clamp, no added tip mass Sensitivity (mV/g) 66.168 Upper Frequency Limit (Hz) 163.0 Resonance (Hz) 285.0 Sensitivity at Resonance (V/g) 3.0 PLOTS PPA-4011 | Resonant Frequency Range PPA-4011 100 Displacement Amplitude (inches) CCllaammpp -06 1.40.0 0.004 0.008 0.012 0.016 0.020 0.024 0.028 0.031 0.035 0.0359.0 Clamp 6 Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 1.2 4.3 10 1 3.6 Tip Mass (g) 1 Force Amplitude (Newtons)00..68 22..29Force Amplitude (ounces) 0.4 1.4 0.1 0.2 0.7 0 0.0 0.01 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Displacement Amplitude (mm) Frequency (Hz) Figure 26: Static displacement and block force are compared Figure 25: Refer to Section 4.3 for more information on tuning for the three different clamp locations. The piezo was driven your piezo. with 100 volts to generate this data. 45 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

PRODUCT: PPA-4011 PPA-4011 | No Tip Mass PPA-4011 | 09.3 Tip Mass 100 3.937 100 3.937 Clamp -6 Clamp -6 Clamp 0 Clamp 0 Clamp 6 Clamp 6 Peak to Peak Deflection (mm) 110 00..033994Peak to Peak Displacement (inches) Peak to Peak Deflection (mm) 110 00..033994Peak to Peak Displacement (inches) 0.1 0.004 0.1 0.004 10 100 1000 10 100 1000 Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz) Figure 27: The peak to peak tip displacement is provided for when the piezo is driven with a ± 50 volt signal. PPA-4011 10.0 33 Piezo Output (V)1.00 mplitude Deviation (dB) A 0.10 3 0 -3 0.01 10 100 1000 Frequency (Hz) Figure 28: The frequency response of the accelerometer is provided with ±3 dB error bands to highlight the frequency range where accurate measurement can be expected. 46 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

ELECTRICAL CONNECTION PIEZO POLARITY & CONNECTING MULTIPLE PIEZOS If you prefer to use the product as a stack where the two (or four) wafers work in unison with one another, Midé requires a minimum Each of the standard PPA products have only two electrical order size of 25 units and a lead time of 4 weeks. There will be connection points for ease of use as highlighted in Figure 55. no additional fee though. Most of these products are poled so that the positive voltage is in the direction of the side with the Midé logo (the side with the Piezos can be connected to one another in either series or parallel. copper connection pads). PPA-1012 and PPA-1021 are poled in Series connection will double the open-circuit voltage compared to the opposite direction. If a positive signal is applied to the “Bottom a single wafer, and the effective capacitance will be 1/2 the single- (+)” pad (in line with the poling direction) the piezo wafer will wafer capacitance (assuming each wafer is the same capacitance). compress in the thickness direction and thus bending upward, Parallel connection will double the current compared to a single toward the side with electrical connection. In applications where wafer, and the effective capacitance will be double the single-wafer the piezo is being used as a sensor or harvester, compressing value. For most applications, parallel connection is recommended. the piezo through the thickness (bending upward, “out of the Regardless of series or parallel connection, the power generated page”) will result in a positive voltage to the “Bottom (+)” pad. by the Volture™ Energy Harvester will be the same. The opposite is true if applying a negative voltage. SOLDER The recommended electrical connection method is to solder directly to the two copper pads on the pack for most of these products. Please note that the PPA-1001 has steel pads which are not designed for soldering. Please practice safe soldering techniques and be sure to apply some electrical tape or insulating epoxy over the connections to prevent them from shorting to one another or person. WARNING: Risk of eye injury; always wear safety goggles when working with hot solder. Figure 55: The two copper pads for electrical termination are highlighted. The two steel pads for electrical termination are highlighted on the PPA-1001 product. WARNING: Risk of lung irritation; avoid direct inhalation of For bimorph products the bottom wafer is poled in the opposite solder fumes. Always solder in well ventilated areas. direction as the wafer on top, away from the center of the pack. The electrical connections are then made with the two wafers connected in parallel; but in such a way where the two wafers always act in the opposite direction of one another (one compresses, while the other extends). This is the desired configuration for when using WARNING: Risk of severe burns; soldering iron tips become these products as benders. The quadmorph wires the four piezos very hot when used. NEVER touch the iron tip. similarly to the bimorphs but as two sets of pairs.The first two wafers act in unison but in the opposite direction as the bottom When connection to the piezo is being made by soldering there two wafers which act in unison with one another. are countless forms of cabling to use. Midé typically uses bare Admittedly, the polarity direction can be confusing. Midé cable but here are two options that have worked well: Header recommends to do a few bench tops tests upon receipt of these Pin Receptacle to Solder Pins, and BNC Connector to Bare Wire. products to gain a better understanding of this directionality. 47 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

ELECTRICAL CONNECTION PPA-7001 RING TERMINAL CA- CONDUCTIVE HARDWARE DI- BLE RECTLY TO PCB The PPA products, with the exception of PPA-1001, were designed Conductive hardware can be used in place of ring terminals for using a M3 Ring Terminal connection as shown in Figure 56. when the piezo beam is directly placed on a PCB. Two brass Refer to the product drawing and/or 3D model for exact location M3 bolts can be used to connect the piezo pack to a PC board of these holes; they are spaced 10.5 mm apart. if large pre-tinned pads (shown as shaded rings in Figure 58) are on the underside of the board. In this configuration the piezo pack would lay on top of the PCB with the brass bolts bringing connection down through the PCB to the underside of the board where a conductive nut would be used to secure the bolt. This nut would electrically connect to the large pads on the underside of the board. Proper mounting torque of 1 N-m (8.85 in-lb) should be used. When mounting directly to the PCB use the PPA-5004 clamp or similar for accurate clamping and operation. Figure 56: Electrical connection to the PPA products can be made with simple M3 Ring Terminals. The PPA-7001 offers a clean cable from two bare wires to two M3 ring terminals. The PPA-7001 uses two ring terminals purchased through Digi-Key: WM9606-ND. The cabling is 22 gauge and also purchased through Digi-Key: E1002S-1000-ND. Any M3 nut and Figure 58: Example PCB configuration for directly mounting and bolt will work to secure the terminals to the copper pads; but connecting a PPA product to a PCB. Dimensions are shown as Midé uses two from McMaster: 90128A187 and 90591A121. millimeters. Proper mounting torque of 1 N-m (8.85 in-lb) should be used. Two cables are included as part of the PPA-9001 clamping kit Be sure to apply some electrical tape or insulating epoxy over and not offered for individual sale. One cable is approximately the connections to prevent them from shorting to one another 150 mm (6 inches) and the other is approximately 1.8 meters or person. (6 feet). A simple drawing of the cable is provided in Figure 57. SPRING LOADED CONTACTS (POGO PINS) All of the PPA products can be connected to with spring loaded contacts, or pogo pins. There are a number of products on the market that work well but Midé has had good experience with the Figure 57: PPA-7001 cable incorporates two M3 ring terminals products made by Mill-Max. It is recommended to apply some and either a 1.8 meter or 150 mm cable length. Dimensions are insulating potting compound around the contacts to protect them provided in mm. in long term operation and against shock and vibration. Be sure to apply some electrical tape or insulating epoxy over the connections to prevent them from shorting to one another or person. 48 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

ELECTRICAL CONNECTION IC HOOK AND ALLIGATOR CLIPS IC hooks can be used for quick connection to all of these products but the hook can become disconnected rather easily. The PPA- 1001 product has raised bumps that enables connection with an alligator clip. Alligator clips are difficult to connect with for the other products. Figure 59: Simple alligator clips and/or IC hooks can be used for quick and simple testing. These are not advisable as long term connection solutions. CONNECTORS Midé can include a connector with each unit but this involves a custom design. Some of Midé’s previous QuickPack and Volture products had connectors similar to these Flat Flex Cable Connectors. Midé has also utilized the flex circuit to design in a flat flex cable to be plugged directly into a ZIF connector. If a built in connector or some other alternative electrical termination method is desired, a custom solution can be designed. There will be an NRE of over $2K for such a design. See Section 7 for more information and an example photo. 49 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

CLAMPING/MOUNTING PPA-9001 CLAMP KIT Effective clamping is vital for the piezo products to perform properly. If these products are used in a cantilever configuration it is strongly recommended to purchase this kit during initial product evaluation. LIST OF CONTENTS The PPA-9001 clamp kit includes all the necessary materials and parts to get started with testing and evaluating the piezo product. This kit was designed for initial testing and feasibility analysis; but it can also be incorporated into your end product/ system. Midé also offers design services if a modified clamp configuration is required. Figure 60 and Table 2 list and identify the contents of this kit. Table 2: PPA-9001 Clamp Kit Contents. Description Part Number Quantity Mass (g) Nut Driver (5.5 mm) 52965A17 1 Hex Key (2.5 mm) 5334A32 1 Orange Electrical Tape (0.75”x 22 yards) 7619A19 1 Vibra-Title Reusable Threadlocker 75145A68 1 M3 Bolt, 5mm Long (Ultra Corrosion Resistant Steel) 91274A101 20 0.7 M3 Bolt, 12mm Long (Ultra Corrosion Resistant Steel) 91274A106 20 1.0 M3 Bolt, 20mm Long (Ultra Corrosion Resistant Steel) 91274A109 5 1.4 M3 Nut (Zinc Plated Steel) 90591A121 100 0.4 M3 Washer (Zinc Plated Steel) 91166A210 100 0.2 Magnet w/M3 Through Hole, 8.8 lb of Pull Force MM-B-16 8 5.7 Clamp Base (Glass Filled Nylon-12) PPA-5001 1 Clamp Bar (Aluminum 6061, 1/16” Thick) PPA-5002 2 Tip Mass Accessory (Aluminum 6061, 1/16” Thick) PPA-5003 2 M3 Ring Terminals to Bare Wire Cable, 1.8 meters (6 feet) PPA-7001-1800 1 M3 Ring Terminals to Bare Wire Cable, 150mm (6 in) PPA-7001-0150 1 50 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

CLAMPING/MOUNTING Figure 61: Dimensions (mm) of the PA-5001 clamp base are provided. This base provides interfaces to clamp the piezo products, secure ring terminals, utilize mounting magnets, bolt the base down to another structure, and interfaces to secure a PCB to the top. Figure 60: All individual hardware components of the clamp kit are shown. Figure 62: The dimensions (mm) of the PPA-5002 clamp bar are provided. If additional hardware is desired, all hardware is available through McMaster-Carr and the part numbers listed in Table 2 are the CLAMP LOCATION distributor part numbers. Additional magnets can be purchased through K&J Magnetics. LEDs are purchased through Digi-Key. These PPA products were designed for three clamp locations. The bolts, nuts, washers, and magnets can be used as tip masses These clamp lines are detailed on the drawing for each product and for tuning your piezo product. Each product has at least one hole shown below with the PPA-9001 clamping kit. The middle clamp at the tip for mounting these components. The PPA-5003 tip mass location (Clamp 0) is the default position for all products. With this mounting accessory has a 3x7 grid of holes meant for mating clamp line 5.3 mm (0.21 in) of the piezo wafer is clamped. This with a PPA product and providing greater customization of where ensures adequate strain in the piezo during energy harvesting and tip masses are located. sensing. It also provides a secure moment for delivering high force The boundary conditions at the clamping line is critical for optimal output in actuation. Clamp 6 extends 6mm toward the tip of the performance; therefore Midé uses aluminum 6061 for the PPA- piezo pack. This clamp location is useful when trying to increase 5002 clamp bar. In order to ensure vibrations are not dampened the resonant frequency of the beam. Clamp -6 extends 6mm away through the clamp base, the PPA-5001 base piece is 3D printed from the tip of the piezo beam. With this clamp configuration the from a stiff glass filled nylon material. These are 3D printed with piezo wafer is not directly clamped. This is ideal for applications laser sintering to keep costs down. The 3D model of this assembly where displacement performance is paramount. Not clamping on and components is available to download here. Dimensions for the piezo makes the pack much less stiff, and thus drives down the two parts are provided in Figure 61 and Figure 62. the resonant frequency. Due to the decreased strain delivered to the piezo it also lengthens the lifetime of the pack. This clamp location is not recommended for energy harvesting, sensing, or force delivery applications due to the lack of strain. Figure 63: The three clamp locations are shown for the PPA products. 51 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

CLAMPING/MOUNTING The PPA-1001 does not have the same configuration as the other products and thus only can utilize two of the clamp locations as shown in Figure 64. To mount the PPA product, press the back edge of the beam against the alignment pins so that they are tangent. Midé also recommends that a layer of electrical tape be placed over the contacts pads on the PPA-1001. The PPA-5002 clamp bar is conductive so great care should be made to ensure that it does not short out the two contact pads. Figure 65: Clamping the piezo products is possible with two recessed nuts, two M3 12mm bolts, two PPA-5002 clamp bars and the PPA-5001 clamp base. Figure 64: The PPA-1001 only utilizes the Clamp 0 and Clamp 6 locations. CAUTION: Over tightening the bolts could damage the piezo� CAUTION: The PPA-1001 cannot be clamped in the Clamp Most applications that require these piezo products will have heavy -6 location. Failure to put electric tape over the contact vibration either from the piezos or environmental vibration that the pads of the product can result in the PPA-5002 clamp bar piezos are sensing/harvesting from. Vibration can often loosen shorting the piezo. This can damage the drive electronics bolts over time which is why threadlocker is included with each and/or result in no output for energy harvesting or sensing kit. This threadlocker is reusable for testing and evaluation; but for applications areas. long term testing Midé suggests a more permanent threadlocker solution. It is imperative to use some form of threadlocker or the boundary conditions at the clamp or tip mass can change with CLAMPING INSTRUCTIONS time which will result in a change of performance over time. Clamping the products is made easy with the PPA-5001 clamp EXAMPLE CONFIGURATIONS base and PPA-5002 clamp bars. Select the desirable clamp location and align one clamp bar with the side alignment pins at The PPA-9001 clamping kit was designed for evaluation purposes the desired location. Then place the piezo beam on top of the clamp and for Midé’s wide range of customers and end applications. bar, using the alignment pins at the back of the clamp base. The Therefore it was designed to be used in a great number of different second clamp bar is then placed on top, using the side alignment configurations. Not only are there different clamp lines, there are pins. Two 12mm M3 bolts can then be screwed down after nuts different methods of mounting the base to your vibrating structure are placed in the bottom nut recesses. These recessed areas and mounting electronics or other hardware to the clamp base. keep the nuts captive so that the bolts can be screwed down. Figure 66 provides some example mounting methods. The recommended torque that should be used is 1 N-m (8.85 in-lb). If a torque wrench is not available be sure to just use the provided hex key T handle and hand tighten to ensure the bolts are not over tightened and damage the piezo. 52 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

CLAMPING/MOUNTING This grid can be used to extend the beam length of the piezo which can reduce the resonance dramatically, important for a lot of folks Figure 66: Various methods of securing the clamp base to its interested in human based vibration. It can also be used to induce intended surface/structure and/or methods of securing a PCB or a more “rocking” mode shape than strictly a bending one which other hardware to the base are shown. can create more strain in the piezo. Due to its grid like pattern it can also be used to connect a number of PPA products for very The clamp base was also designed to hold more than one product interesting harvesting potential and haptic feedback control. Get at a time. This could be useful if you are looking to expand creative with this accessory and let Midé know how you used it! the frequency bandwidth (have several units tuned to different frequencies) for example. Figure 67 shows how several products can be clamped with one clamp assembly. Figure 67: The PPA-5001 clamp base can hold one of the two of the PPA-1014 and PPA-2014 products and three of the PPA-1021 and PPA-1022 products as shown. Figure 69: The PPA-5003 is shown here extending the beam of There are a host of other configurations that can be used with this a PPA-1011 product to reduce the resonant frequency. clamp kit, including stacking of several bases onto one-another (longer bolts may be required)! Midé encourages you to be creative and would love to hear/see what you created! PPA-5003 TIP MASS ACCESSORY The PPA-5003 tip mass mounting accessory provides a 3x7 grid of M3 mounting holes for mating to the PPA products and adding tip mass in many different configurations. This plate is water jet cut from aluminum 6061. Figure 70: The PPA-5003 is shown here with tap masses mounted next to the PPA-1011 product to induce a shaking/twisting mode instead of the pure bending more. This will induce more strain in the piezo. Figure 68: The PPA-5003 tip mass mounting accessory provides a 3x7 grid of M3 mounting holes for mating to the PPA products and adding tip mass in many different configurations. This is water jet cut from aluminum 6061. Dimensions are listed in both millimeters and inches. 53 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

CLAMPING/MOUNTING Figure 71: The PPA-5003 is shown with several products all connected to it. This highlights how the accessory can be used CALCULATING THE REQUIRED TIP to pair different products and potentially expand the bandwidth MASS of harvest-able frequencies. PPA-5004 CLAMP In order to determine the appropriate clamp position and required tip mass, Midé conveniently provided the effective stiffness (k) and effective mass (m) of each product in each of the three clamp The PPA-9001 kit offers a great solution for initial testing and configurations. The relationship between natural frequency (f) and evaluation. It is even a viable solution for small to medium volume added tip mass (m_t) is provided in the following two equations production runs. But the PPA-5004 product offers a clamp solution depending on what you’re solving for. Be sure to convert the tip for larger order production runs. It is water jet cut from aluminum mass and effective mass to kilograms, not grams. 6061 and can be used to clamp the PPA-X011, PPA-X014, and PPA-102X products. M3 bolts or 4-40 bolts can be used for clamping (follow clamp instructions presented in Section 4.1.3). INSERT 3 EQUATIONS There are three half circles meant to be used with M2 dowel pins (5/64” can also be used) to properly align the edge of the clamp with the piezo. This clamps at the “0 Clamp” location; if a different clamp location is needed, contact Midé for more information. Let’s use an example where we would like to tune the PPA-2011 product to 60 Hz. Referencing the resonant frequency range plot (included again in Figure 73) we can see that each of the three clamp locations can be tuned to 60 Hz. We decide to use the Clamp 0 location because we know Clamp -6 provides little strain in the piezo and the Clamp 6 location requires much more tip mass than Clamp 0. Referencing the effective stiffness and mass from the product’s specifications we calculate the required tip mass as shown, which comes to 3.4 grams. ANOTHER EQUATION Figure 72: The PPA-5004 clamp is a low profile clamp solution for designing directly into the end system. TUNING To ensure the most efficient energy harvesting (or tip deflection) it is essential to tune the piezo beam’s natural frequency to match that of the vibrating source (or drive frequency). Tuning is performed in one of two ways: changing the clamp position, or adding/subtracting tip mass. Each of the PPA products include at least one hole at the tip so that tip masses can be adequately secured and in a repeatable location. 54 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

CLAMPING/MOUNTING or some other adhesive once the tip mass has been added so that the mass doesn’t come dislodged during operation. Midé encourages you to get creative with how tip mass is added. Sometimes asymmetric loading can be beneficial because it results in a twisting mode which can induce more strain in the piezo. Use the PPA-5003 tip mass mounting accessory for more customization and control on modal shapes and resonances. Please share your configuration with Midé and other customers! DETERMINING THE CHARAC- TERISTICS OF THE VIBRATION SOURCE Each of the PPA products can be used as a sensor and the easiest way to measure the frequency and amplitude of the vibration source is to connect the output from the piezo to an oscilloscope. The oscilloscope will measure the frequency of the vibration and display a voltage output of the piezo. Referring to each products Figure 73: The PPA-2011 frequency range plot is provided as sensitivity (so long as the frequency is below the specified upper an example. limit) will provide a rough estimate of the amplitude of the vibration. Please note that the stiffness and effective mass for each product Alternatively Midé offers a range of vibration data logging products, is provided as a guide to estimate the required tip mass. The the Slam Stick suite that incorporates the data acquisition, sensors, natural frequency of each product is impacted by temperature, and power into one small, easy to use solution. Free analysis manufacturing tolerances, clamp conditions, even the drive software is included so that FFTs can be generated with data gather amplitude or vibration amplitude. In energy harvesting applications by the device to determine the relative strength of each frequency. the resonance can change depending on the load being powered Also check out Midé’s Simple Harmonic Motion calculator to learn by the harvester. It’s important to test each product in the desired more on the relationship between acceleration, displacement, and operating environment to accurately ensure proper tuning has velocity amplitude with frequency. been achieved. DETERMINING RESONANCE OF Also note that these tip mass equations only work when adding THE PIEZO BEAM tip mass centered over the tip mass holes on each product. If you are using the PPA-5003 tip mass accessory to add mass at other locations, these equations will be invalid. Also note that The resonance of the beam is best determined by capturing what asymmetric tip mass loading will be invalid for these equations. frequency the device “rings out” after being excited by a mechanical impulse. The easiest way to perform this type of tuning is to properly mount and clamp the product to a rigid structure. Next, ADDING TIP MASS attach the piezos output directly to an oscilloscope for monitoring Add the appropriate tip mass to the end of the cantilevered beam, Each of the PPA products include at least one hole at the tip for do not permanently adhere the tip mass yet. Apply an impulse mounting tip masses. Included in the PPA-9001 kit are nuts, bolts, mechanical load by very lightly “flicking” the end of the beam. This washers, and magnets which can be used as tip masses; but will cause the beam to “ring out”. The frequency of the decaying virtually anything can be used. Customers can make their own tip wave is the natural frequency that the beam is currently tuned mass structures to mate with these mounting holes and provide to. Add more mass to reduce the resonance and subtract some the perfect amount of mass. It is important to use threadlocker to increase the natural frequency. 55 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

CLAMPING/MOUNTING BONDING Midé’s recommends the LOCTITE® Hysol® E-120HP™ epoxy for direct bonding of its PPA piezo products to a structure. This two- part, 24-hour cure, high-performance aerospace grade structural epoxy provides excellent adhesion to the piezo polyimide and FR4 exteriors. Midé does not distribute the epoxy but it is available online.Piezoelectric Properties 56 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

MATERIAL PROPERTIES PIEZOELECTRIC PROPERTIES Property Symbol Units PZT 5 A PZT 5H PMN-PT Dielectric Constant (1KHz) KT 1900 3800 5400 3 Dielectric Loss Factor (1KHz) tanδ % 1.8 2.0 ≤ 0.6 e Density ρ g/cm³ 7.8 7.8 8.0 Curie Point T °C 350 225 >142 c Mechanical Quality Factor Q 80 30 80 m Coercive Field (Measured <1 Hz) E kV/cm 12.0 8 1.8-3.0 c Remanent Polarization P μCoul/cm² 39.0 39 r Coupling Coefficients k 0.65 0.75 p k 0.72 0.75 0.91 33 k 0.36 0.43 0.44 31 k 0.48 0.55 0.60 t k 0.59 0.75 0.35 15 Piezoelectric Charge d Coul/N x 10-¹² -190 -320 -699 31 (Displacement) Coefficient (or) m/V x d 390 650 1540 33 10-¹² Piezoelectric Voltage Coefficient g V∙m/N x 10 -³ 24.0 19.0 32.2 33 g -11.3 -9.5 -14.6 31 Elastic Modulus YE N/m² x 10¹º 6.7 6.3 1.9 11 YE 5.3 5.0 1.7 33 Resonant Thickness N KHz∙cm 211 202 200 tr Anti-Resonant Thickness N KHz∙cm 236 236 ta Thermal Expansion ( to Poling) α ppm/°C 3.0 3.5 Specific Heat C J/kg∙°C 440 420 330 p Thermal Conductivity K W/m∙°K 1.2 1.2 1.336 d Poisson’s Ratio υ 0.31 0.31 0.37 Midé’s standard products typically use PZT 5H due to improved piezoelectric information and equations. A good reference Midé performance over PZT 5A at a comparable price. The performance of PZT 5A is more stable over temperature however. PMN-PT exhibits the best piezoelectric properties but this comes with a much higher cost. Midé offers three products (PPA-1031, PPA-1032, and PPA-1033) that have the same form factor but with these three different piezoelectric materials (PZT 5A, PZT 5H, and PMN-PT) for “apples to apples” comparison between these materials. There are a number of online resources that provide additional 57 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

MATERIAL PROPERTIES PACKAGING MATERIALS Properties Units FR4 Copper Polyimide 304 Steel Polysulfone Polyester Young’s Modulus GPa 26 110 4.1 193 5.72 3.65 Poisson’s ratio 0.172 0.343 0.34 0.29 0.4 0.48 Density g/cc 1.9 8.93 1.41 8 1.37 1.38 Ultimate Tensile Strength MPa 368 210 231 505 87 177 Tensile Yield Strength MPa 340 33.3 90 215 87.9 92.8 Thermal Expansion Coefficient μm/m-C 15 16.4 34.3 17.3 31 17 Thermal Conductivity W/m-K 0.4 398 0.26 16.2 0.26 0.15 Specific Heat J/g-C 0.6 0.385 1.09 0.5 910 1.17 Maximum Operating Temperature C 130 1083 275 1400 160 220 There are thin layers of epoxy between each material; but for modeling purposes this layer can be ignored (<0.02 mm thick). The operating temperature range for Midé’s PPA products is -40 to 120 C due to the epoxy used. Higher temperature, up to 150 C, is available with alternative epoxy (see Midé’s Piezo Flo products). See Section 7 for custom solutions. 58 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

TESTING METHODS TESTING METHODS Detailed explanation on how the experimental data was gathered which was used to generate all presented performance data. ENERGY HARVESTING Energy harvesting calculations were performed for each piezoelectric product using the simple electric power equation P = VI, where V is the voltage generated by the piezo and I is the load current through the circuit. In order to measure these electric parameters in a vibration environment, a simple experimental setup using a close-looped electromagnetic shaker, a variable potentiometer and two digital multimeters were used to determine the overall power of each piezo at various acceleration values (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g). The piezo is loaded into the product harness with the clamping bars in the middle clamp location. Using a custom interface piece, the product harness was then mounted to the shaker Figure 74: The power output of a piezo energy harvester can be such that the piezo would deflect in the same direction as the optimized by adjusting the resistance/current/voltage as shown shaker vibrates (i.e. vertically towards the ceiling/floor). First and for testing on one of the products. The optimal resistance level foremost, the piezo terminals were hooked up to a multimeter is included for each test condition on all products. and RMS open-circuit voltage was measured at each g level This test was performed for all products in the middle clamp tested. The shaker swept through dwells of various frequencies location, at 0.25, 0.5, 1, & 2 g accelerations for no tip mass, until the resonance frequency of the piezo at each g level was full tip mass, and a 60 Hz resonance tip mass. The peak to peak obtained. This frequency was then used for each product. This displacement of the piezo for each test was also measured by a was repeated for various amounts of tip mass (i.e. none, full, laser sensor to determine the mechanical displacement experienced and mass that generated a 60 Hz resonance). After obtaining at each g level with varying tip masses. This allows for greater resonance frequency, the circuit was adjusted to measure RMS insight to the strain experienced by the piezo. current in order to obtain power. From one of the piezo terminals, a multimeter was connected in STATIC DEFECTION/BLOCK series with one leg of the potentiometer in order to measure RMS FORCE current. The other leg of the potentiometer was connected to the second piezo terminal by means of another electrical lead. The At very low frequencies piezo products experience quasi-static second multimeter was connected to both legs of the potentiometer deformations that can be used in actuator applications. In order to measure the RMS voltage across the potentiometer. The shaker to measure the performance of each piezo as a quasi-static was run again at resonance frequency while current and voltage actuator, each piezo was powered at 100V and fed a 0.1 and 1 Hz were measured by the multimeters. The potentiometer resistance frequency to measure the block force and quasi-static deflection, was changed while the shaker vibrated in order to determine the respectively, of each piezo. With these measurements a range of load resistance that generated maximum power. The resistance static actuator applications applicable to each product can be value was then calculated using Ohm’s Law. See Figure 74 for determined. This test was repeated for all three clamp locations an example on how load affects the power output from the piezo. on the piezo mounting harness. With a function generator hooked up to an amplifier to drive 100 V (rms = 71V) into each piezo, the free tip of each piezo was placed directly over top of a compression load cell operating at 59 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

TESTING METHODS 15 V with signal wires connected to a multimeter. With a small An electromagnetic shaker was programmed to run a frequency frequency (0.1 Hz) applied by the function generator, the piezo sweep at 2g acceleration with 10 second dwells events at each would press on the load cell resulting in a voltage readout from of the frequencies chosen for testing. This allowed a constant the multimeter. This voltage was recorded as the force applied by acceleration and sweep of frequencies to be applied to each piezo the piezo and was then converted into mechanical force (N, oz.) while still being able to measure the output voltage of each product. Each product was clamped in a mounting harness and then Each piezo was clamped and bolted down to a mounting fixture fixed to an XY table for positioning underneath a displacement along the axis of vibration of the shaker. The terminals of each measuring laser. The laser focal point was placed on a corner of piezo were connected to a multimeter for measurement and the free tip on the piezo for maximum deflection measurement. had voltage measured from it across the sweep, at resonance The piezo was driven at 1 Hz at 100 V. An oscilloscope was used frequency and at the two frequencies representing the upper and to read the deflection as a sinusoidal voltage wave, which was lower bounds of the half power bandwidth. The data from the then converted to linear displacement (8*V [V] = d [mm]). sweep was analyzed and a range experiencing nearly constant sensitivity was determined (starting at 13 Hz and ending at the FREQUENCY SWEEP frequency that exceeded +3dB from the nominal sensitivity). In order to determine the functionality of each product as an actuator, a sweep of electrical signals at various frequencies was applied to each product at 100V (determined as the upper threshold for safe operating voltage). The mechanical deflection and current draws at each frequency were recorded. These recordings identify the performance output and natural frequency of each product. The test was repeated for all three clamp locations with and without the tip mass end loaded. A function generator was hooked up to an amplifier in order to supply a steady 100V (RMS = 71V), as well as to allow a wide range of frequencies to be signaled through the leads of the piezos. With a multimeter in series, AC draw (mA) from each piezos was measured at frequencies ranging between 10 – 800 Hz. Each product was clamped in the PPA-5001 Clamp Base (more information in Section 4.1) and then fixed to an XY table for positioning underneath a displacement measuring laser. The laser focal point was placed on a corner of the free tip on the piezo for maximum deflection measurement. An oscilloscope was used to read the deflection as a sinusoidal voltage wave and then be converted to linear displacement. SENSITIVITY/POWER BAND- WIDTH The sensitivity testing was run to understand how each piezo would behave when put in a sensor application, such as an accelerometer. Sensitivity (V/g) was determined by exposing each piezo to 2g acceleration at frequencies between 10 & 1000 Hz and had its open-circuit voltage measured at each frequency. 60 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

CUSTOM SOLUTIONS CUSTOM SOLUTIONS Midé prides itself on its ability to solve tough engineering problems in an efficient and cost effective manner. Custom piezo packages can be designed and built by Midé similar to the examples shown below. Midé can use different packaging materials, different piezoelectric materials, different epoxy etc. The form factor can also be modified with varying configurations of mounting holes/ features, connectors etc. Please note that custom solutions involve an NRE of between $2K and $10K depending on the complexity. Midé recommends a thorough feasibility analysis using the standard products prior to any NRE. 61 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

TROUBLESHOOTING Problem Potential Cause Action No Power Output or Electric The piezo is not properly connected. Ensure that the two copper pads on the piezo product Output for Sensing are properly connected. This is most reliably done if you check the capacitance. The piezo is not tuned to the frequency of the Tune the piezo by changing the clamp location and/or vibrating source. adding tip mass as detailed in Section 4. The vibration environment is not sufficient. Power output will be very low when trying to harvest from shock/impulse events (see FAQs), these products perform better for continued vibration. Measure the amplitude of this vibration with one of Midé’s Slam Stick products and use the Volture product selector to ensure that the power output is adequate. No Motion When Driven The piezo is not properly connected. Ensure that the two copper pads on the piezo product are properly connected. This is most reliably done if you check the capacitance. The piezo is not tuned to the frequency of the Tune the piezo by changing the clamp location and/or vibrating source. adding tip mass as detailed in Section 4. The drive voltage may be too low Check the drive voltage to ensure it is properly amplified. Piezos need close to 100 volts to move an adequate amount. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS 1. How does a piezoelectric actuator create motion and/or is achieved by adjusting the clamp position and/or the tip mass. create an electric signal? Adding tip mass will reduce the resonant frequency. Lengthening the beam by moving the clamp location will also reduce the Some materials exhibit what is called the piezoelectric effect, which resonance. The opposite is true for both as well. See Section 4.3 literally means that electric charge is generated when the material for more information. To test what the resonance of your piezo is pressed (or squeezed or stretched). The reverse is also true: an pack is, simply connect the piezo terminals to an oscilloscope. If applied electric field will cause a change in dimensions of the piece the piezo is “flicked” it will vibrate at its resonant/natural frequency. of material. For a positive voltage applied in the z-direction, a solid rectangular piece will expand in one direction (z) and contract in 3. I’d like to model the performance of the piezo in software. the other two (x and y); if the voltage is reversed, the piece will How can I do that? contract in the z-direction and expand in the x- and y-directions. The relevant material properties are included in Section 5 for This is somewhat like thermal expansion and contraction, but modeling and simulation of our piezos. Refer to a particular since electric field is used instead of temperature, a quick reaction product’s specifications to determine the geometry necessary for is achieved in response to commands easily generated with modeling. Layer thickness is also provided. Simple simulations electronic circuits. and calculations can be made in MATLAB or a similar analysis 2. How do I tune my piezo? software. More complex 3D analysis will likely need a Finite Element Analysis software package for piezoelectrics such as ANSYS, A “tuned” beam means that the natural frequency of your piezo COMSOL, or others. Midé has used SolidWorks Simulation and matches the frequency of the environment its harvesting energy NASTRAN to model piezos by manipulating the thermal expansion from or the drive signal you are exciting the piezo with. A tuned coefficient of the material. This works well but has its limitations piezo will drastically outperform an untuned one in both energy in regard to poling direction. harvesting and actuation applications. Tuning your piezo beam 62 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

4.How much current is required to drive a piezo actuator? 7. Can my piezo energy harvester harvest energy from shock/ impact events? For many purposes, the electrical behavior of an actuator can be approximated by that of a simple capacitor. When the actuator Yes, when a piezo beam is excited with a shock or impact event is driven with a sinusoidal voltage, the required current can be the beam will oscillate at its own resonant frequency but quickly found from the equation: I=(2πf)CV where I is peak current in (depends on the resonance but within about 2 seconds) dampen amperes, C is capacitance in farads, V is peak drive voltage and out. Midé recommends directly testing the power output for your f is frequency in hertz. The capacitance of each product is listed. given environment and clamp conditions but you can expect as Note that at resonance the current draw can be as much as 20% much as 0.5 mJ of energy to be harvested from a single impact to 50% higher depending on the configuration. event if optimal conditions are met. The following figure provides a typical output from a shock event. One will notice that the initial For static/DC actuation the current draw is very low. The current output is quite large; but it quickly dampens out within a second draw can be calculated from the following equation: I=C dV/dt or two. This dampening coefficient will depend on the harvester, where I is peak current in amperes, C is capacitance in farads, tip mass, and clamp configuration. dV/dt is rate of change of the voltage (V/s). To hold the position, once actuated, the piezo draws very little current. The only current draw needed is to compensate for the very low leakage currents, even in the case of very high loads. This is true even when suddenly disconnected from the electrical source, the charged piezo will slowly discharge the electrical energy and return to the zero position slowly. 5. What is the frequency range the piezo can operate in? Each product must be tuned to a specific frequency for optimal energy harvesting and for the most significant displacement and force output during actuation. This resonant frequency can be adjusted by changing the clamp location and/or changing how much tip mass is on the beam. Each of the products have a wide range of resonant frequencies from as low as 20 Hz up to 500 Hz. But all of these will operate at virtually any frequency in actuation. In energy harvesting it will need at least 2 Hz of motion to produce any electrical current; but it is virtually unlimited in regard to higher frequencies. 8. Can my piezo energy harvester charge a phone or battery? 6. How much power output can I expect? Yes, but over a very long period of time. These harvesters will Midé created an easy to use product selector that, if provided generate at most a few mA of current on the order of 10s of volts. a vibration frequency and amplitude (refer to Section 4.3.3), it For easy math, we’ll assume the harvester generates 5 mA at 20 calculates the expected power output, tip mass required, open volts, or 100 mW of continuous power. Most phones have about circuit voltage, and peak to peak displacement. These calculated 2,500 mAh of storage capacity, similar to a AA battery. Assuming values are meant to only act as a guide in selecting your product the phone or battery is operating at 5 volts, it will take 125 hours and determining feasibility. All of these parameters are impacted (over 5 days) to fully charge the battery or phone. Alternatively, by manufacturing tolerances, clamping, temperature, even the you will need 125 piezo energy harvesters to charge this battery in load applied to the power output. Once an estimate has been one hour. Now these numbers used were very aggressive, where calculated, accurate data can only be confirmed with testing in most applications only have a few milliwatts of power available. the desired environment. In these applications it will take several thousand hours to charge the device or battery. Piezo energy harvesters are better suited for applications that require very little energy such as periodic measurements in health monitoring applications for example. 63 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

They are not well suited for charging large batteries. • LTC3330 –Nanopower Buck-Boost DC/DC with Energy Harvesting Battery Life Extender 9. What is the “Half Power Bandwidth” and the “Q Factor?” The half power bandwidth defines the frequency range at which • Demo board from Linear Technology the output/displacement is greater than -3 dB or greater than the maximum output/displacement divided by root 2. The Q factor is • LTC3331 – Nanopower Buck-Boost DC/DC the ratio of the resonant frequency to the half power bandwidth. with Energy Harvesting Battery Charger The higher the Q factor, the narrower and sharper the peak is. • Demo board from Linear Technology 10. What happened to the older QuickPack and Volture products? 13. I am using your products for educational purposes, is there These first generation products were discontinued and replaced any educational discount available? by the new PPA line. The PPA line improved upon performance, cost, and ease of use over the older products. Midé can still Midé does not offer an educational discount. The PPA-1001 is manufacture these products but this would involve a custom the most cost effective product we offer and we recommend this order as the materials are not stocked any longer. Therefore, the for those on a tight budget. minimum order size would need to be on the order of $5,000 with a 3 month lead time. PRODUCT SUPPORT 11. How can I drive/power my piezo actuator? For technical support, repair, and returns please contact through Midé is developing a piezo driver that incorporates the waveform its online contact form at http://www.mide.com/mide/contact.php generation and voltage amplifier in one easy-to-use package. Until that product is finalized you must use a signal generator Please note that product specifications are subject to change and amplifier. Midé has used amplifiers from http://piezodrive. without notice. This often occurs due to Midé’s continued effort com/ in the past before that are easy to use and cost effective. to improve the features and functionality of this product. For up-to-date documentation and other product information please 12. What conditioning electronics do I need to use the piezo visit our website at www.mide.com. Midé’s sales and technical energy harvester? staff would also be happy to help with any inquires of updated product information. The piezo’s output will be a relatively high voltage, low current AC signal that needs to be conditioned for use with most other Midé 200 Boston Avenue, Suite 1000, Medford MA, 02155. electronics. Midé has partnered with Linear Technology who offers a number of commercially available chips and demonstration Midé Technology is an ISO 9001:2008 Certified Company. boards for energy harvesting applications. The following solutions are recommended: • LTC3588-1 – Nanopower Energy Harvesting Power Supply • Demo board from Linear Technology • Breakout board from Spark Fun • DC2042A – Energy Harvesting Multi-Source Demo board • LTC3588-2 – Nanopower Energy Harvesting Power Supply (higher voltage) 64 of 64 REVISION No. 001 | DATE: 12-05-2015 | Web: www.mide.com | Contact Form: mide.com/contact-us

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